First of all, We see a Narration from Saheeh al-Bukhari, 6/133, Narration 4827

4827 – حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَوَانَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي بِشْرٍ، عَنْ يُوسُفَ بْنِ مَاهَكَ، قَالَ: كَانَ مَرْوَانُ عَلَى الحِجَازِ اسْتَعْمَلَهُ مُعَاوِيَةُ فَخَطَبَ، فَجَعَلَ يَذْكُرُ يَزِيدَ بْنَ مُعَاوِيَةَ لِكَيْ يُبَايَعَ لَهُ بَعْدَ أَبِيهِ، فَقَالَ لَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ شَيْئًا، فَقَالَ: خُذُوهُ، فَدَخَلَ بَيْتَ عَائِشَةَ فَلَمْ يَقْدِرُوا، فَقَالَ مَرْوَانُ: إِنَّ هَذَا الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ، {وَالَّذِي قَالَ لِوَالِدَيْهِ أُفٍّ لَكُمَا أَتَعِدَانِنِي} [الأحقاف: 17]، فَقَالَتْ عَائِشَةُ مِنْ وَرَاءِ الحِجَابِ: «مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فِينَا شَيْئًا مِنَ القُرْآنِ إِلَّا أَنَّ اللَّهَ أَنْزَلَ عُذْرِي»

Volume 6, Book 60, Number 352:

Narrated Yusuf bin Mahak:

Marwan had been appointed as the governor of Hijaz by Muawiya. He delivered a sermon and mentioned Yazid bin Muawiya so that the people might take the oath of allegiance to him as the successor of his father (Muawiya). Then ‘Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr told him something whereupon Marwan ordered that he be arrested. But ‘Abdur-Rahman entered ‘Aisha’s house and they could not arrest him. Marwan said, “It is he (‘AbdurRahman) about whom Allah revealed this Verse:–

‘And the one who says to his parents: ‘Fie on you! Do you hold out the promise to me..?'”

On that, ‘Aisha said from behind a screen, “Allah did not reveal anything from the Qur’an about us except what was connected with the declaration of my innocence (of the slander).”

The narration is telling us that Abdur Rehman said something so harsh that led Marwan to order that He be arrested.

What was that?

It is not mentioned in Saheeh Bukhari

Ibn Hajar writes upon this in His Fath-ul-Bari, 8/577; that

قَالَ بَعْضُ الشُّرَّاحِ وَقَدِ اخْتَصَرَهُ فَأَفْسَدَهُ

Some of Commentators said that He shortened it, and corrupted.

Sheikh Albany mentions details of The incident in his Silsila Ahadeeth Saheehiyya, 7/721-722, and writes

 

 عن عبد الله البهي قال:
إني لفي المسجد حين خطب مروان فقال: إن الله تعالى قد أرى أمير المؤمنين
في (يزيد) رأياً حسناً وأن يستخلفه، فقد استخلف أبو بكر عمر- رضي الله عنهما-. فقال عبد الرحمن بن أبي بكر- رضي الله عنهما-: أهرقلية؟! إن أبا بكر- رضي
الله عنه- ما جعلها في أحد من ولده، وأحد من أهل بيته، ولا جعلها معاوية
إلا رحمة وكرامة لولده! فقال مروان: ألست الذي قال لوالديه: (أفٍّ لكما) ؟ فقال عبد الرحمن: ألست يا مروان! ابن اللعين الذي لعن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أباك؟! قال: وسمعتهما عائشة- رضي الله عنها-، فقالت: يا مروان! أنت القائل لعبد الرحمن
كذا وكذا؟! كذبت! ما فيه نزلت، ولكن نزلت في فلان بن فلان. ثم انتحب
مروان (!) ثم نزل عن المنبر حتى أتى باب حجرتها، فجعل يكلمها حتى انصرف. قلت: سكت عنه ابن كثير، وهو إسناد صحيح.

 Abdullah Bahi says that We were in Mosque when Marwan delivered a sermon. He said: Allah has shown a Nice opinion to Mawia about Yazeed in that He be made Caliph, like Abu Bakar made Umar caliph. Abdur Rehman bin Abi Bakar said upon this: Like Harqals (Christian Kings)? Abu Bakar did not make any of His sons Caliph, nor He made from his household. Mawia is doing this as Mercy and Honor for His son. Marwan said that This verse was revealed for You. Abdur Rehman replied: O Marwan! Are you not son of the Cursed one, who was cursed by Holy Prophet (asws)? Ayesha heard this, and said: O Marwan! You lied. Allah revealed this verse for so and so. Then Marwan stepped down, went to Her House, spoke and then went away. I [Albany] say: Ibn Katheer kept quiet about this. and this chain is Saheeh/authentic. 

 

This is the detail as mentioned in another Narration

And some Commentators of Bukhari said that Bukhari shortened it.

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