{deduced from article of brother guided}

Allah’s command in this verse:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

[4:59] O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and the possessors of the Amr among you.

Allah (تبارك و تعالى) has mentioned the same “obey” for the Prophet and these possessors of the Amr. They are to be obeyed unconditionally, as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). They will always be a possession of the Amr from Quraysh on the earth.

Wa (meaning “and”) has been used in the verse “obey … (wa) and …”. Wa is the conjunction of partnership. It therefore shows that the Prophet and the possessors of the Amr are partners in obedience. The same wa has also been used in a number of cases in the Qur’an, involving Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Classical Sunni scholar, Qadi Iyad, explains further:

The fact that mention of the Prophet is directly connected to mention of Allah also shows that OBEDIENCE TO THE PROPHET IS CONNECTED TO OBEDIENCE TO ALLAH and his name to Allah’s name. Allah says, “Obey Allah AND His Messenger” (2:32) and “Believe in Allah AND His Messenger.” (4:136) Allah JOINS them TOGETHER using the conjunction wa WHICH IS THE CONJUNCTION OF PARTNERSHIP. It is not permitted to use this conjunction in connection with Allah in the case of anyone except the Prophet.

Qadi Iyad, Kitab Ash-shifa bi ta’rif huquq al-Mustafa (Healing by the recognition of the Rights of the Chosen One), translated by Aisha Abdarrahman Bewley (Scotland, U.K: Madinah Press; third reprint 1991, paperback), pp. 7-8

In terms of obedience, Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) are partners. The Qur’an further confirms this:

[al-hilali and khan 4:65] But no, by your Lord, they can have no Faith, until they make you judge IN ALL DISPUTES between them, and FIND IN THEMSELVES NO RESISTANCE AGAINST YOUR DECISIONS, and accept (them) WITH FULL SUBMISSION.

And:

[Shakir 33:36] And it behoves not a believing man and a believing woman that they should have ANY choice in their matter when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he surely strays off a manifest straying.

Yet, in terms of obedience, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) and these possessors of the Amr are also partners. Sunni scholars have sought to distort the true meaning of Qur’an 4:59 by stating that the possessors of the Amr are not to be obeyed unconditionally as the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم)! This is quite strange since the Qur’an has made them partners in obedience with him. Therefore, if they are not to be obeyed unconditionally, then the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) too does not deserve unconditional obedience! This will then extend to Allah (تبارك و تعالى) too, since He and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) are partners in obedience! In short, if the possessors of the Amr are not to be obeyed unconditionally, Allah (تبارك و تعالى) too is not to be obeyed unconditionally. The clear text of Qur’an 4:59 itself refutes any opinion or report that suggests that the possessors of the Amr are not to be obeyed unconditionally.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) informed his Ummah that the possessors of the Amr will FOREVER be on the earth and from Quraysh, even if only two people remain alive on the whole planet. In short, if there were only two more people on the earth, one of them would be the possessor of the Amr from Quraysh.

Imam al-Bukhari, in his Sahih (Maktaba al-Iman), page 1426, Hadith Number 7137 (Kitab al-Ahkam), under a heading reading Qur’an 4:59, records this Hadith:

حدثنا عبدان أخبرنا عبد الله عن يونس عن الزهري أخبرني أبو سملة بن عبد الرحمن انه سمع أبا هريرة رضي الله عنه يقول إن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال من أطاعني فقد أطاع الله ومن عصاني فقد عصى الله ومن أطاع أميري فقد أطاعني ومن عصى أميري فقد عصاني

Narrated Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him:

Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allah, and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allah. Whoever obeys my Amir has obeyed me, and whoever disobeys my Amir has disobeyed me.

Amir is from Amr. Amir means “commander” while Amr means “command”. In this Hadith, which is in explanation of Qur’an 4:59, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) shows clearly that the possessor of the Amr is called the Amir. He is also the Prophet’s Amir because he is appointed by the former. It is like saying “Allah’s Prophet” or the “Prophet of Allah”. The meaning is different from “the Prophet of Quraysh”. The “Prophet of Allah” is the prophet appointed by Allah (تبارك و تعالى), while the “Prophet of Quraysh” means the prophet sent to Quraysh. The Amir of Quraysh, in the same vein, is the Amir appointed OVER Quraysh, while the Amir of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is the Amir appointed BY the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).

Looking carefully at the phrases used, one notices that the above Hadith clearly confirms Qur’an 4:59, in that the Amirs are to be obeyed unconditionally like Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). The first phrase is:

“Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allah, and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allah.”

Does it mean: whoever obeys me when I am correct has obeyed Allah (تبارك و تعالى)? Apparently, the answer is NO. Rather, it means that whoever obeys me in any circumstance has obeyed Allah (تبارك و تعالى), and whoever disobeys me in any circumstance has disobeyed Allah (تبارك و تعالى). It is unconditional obedience that is required to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). This naturally explains the last part of the Hadith: “Whoever obeys my Amir has obeyed me, and whoever disobeys my Amir has disobeyed me”. So, whoever disobeys the Amir in any circumstance has disobeyed Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم).

The Amirs are no doubt infallible like the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم). Allah (تبارك و تعالى) would never make fallible sinners partners of His infallible Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) in obedience. The Amirs are to be obeyed unconditionally. If they are not infallible, then the Qur’an and Sunnah have made an illogical demand from the believers. Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) are above such things. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is to be obeyed unconditionally because Allah (تبارك و تعالى) has protected Him from issuing incorrect commands or verdicts. If an Amir is liable to issue wrong commands and verdicts, why would Allah (تبارك و تعالى) order the people to obey him unconditionally – even in his errors?

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has indicated that the possessors of the Amir, or the Amirs, are appointed by him, apparently on the Command of Allah (تبارك و تعالى). These Amirs appointed by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) are only TWELVE in number, according to him. Imam al-Bukhari again in his Sahih, under the same Kitab al-Ahkam, page 1441, Hadith Number 7223, records:

حدثني محمد بن المثنى حدثنا غندر حدثنا شعبة عن عبد الملك سمعت جابر بن سمرة قال سمعت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول يكون اثنا عشر أميرا فقال كلمة لم اسمعها فقال أبي أنه قال كلهم من قريش

Narrated Jabir bin Samura:

I heard the Prophet saying, “There will be twelve Amirs.” He then said a sentence which I did not hear. My father said, “All of them (those Amirs) will be from Quraysh.”

Shaykh al-Albani in his Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Sahihah, Volume 3, page 63, Number 1075 records:

” يكون من بعدي اثنا عشر أميرا كلهم من قريش ” .

أخرجه الترمذي ( 2 / 35 ) و أحمد ( 5 / 90 و 92 و 95 و 99 و 108 ) من طريق سماك ابن حرب قال : سمعت # جابر بن سمرة # قال : فذكره مرفوعا . و قال : ” حديث حسن صحيح ” . و قد تابعه عبد الملك بن عمير سمعت جابر بن سمرة به . أخرجه البخاري ( 13 / 179 ) و أحمد ( 5 / 93 ) من طريق شعبة عنه . و له طريق أخرى بلفظ : “

يكون بعدي اثنا عشر خليفة كلهم من قريش , ثم رجع إلى منزله فأتته قريش فقالوا : ثم يكون ماذا ? قال : ثم يكون الهرج ” .

أخرجه أبو داود ( 2 / 207 ) و أحمد ( 5 / 92 ) عن زهير حدثنا زياد بن خيثمة حدثنا الأسود بن سعيد الهمداني عن جابر بن سمرة . و هذا إسناد حسن رجاله ثقات رجال مسلم غير الأسود هذا و هو صدوق كما في ” التقريب ” و ” الخلاصة ” .

“There will be after me Twelve Amirs, all of them from Quraysh.”

Al-Tirmidhi (2/35) recorded it, as well as Ahmad (5/90, 92, 95, 99 and 108) through the route of Samak ibn Harb…. Al-Tirmidhi said: “The Hadith is hasan sahih”. Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Umayr also narrated it from Jabir ibn Samurah. Al-Bukhari (13/179) and Ahmad (5/93) recorded it through the route of Shu’ba.

The Hadith has another chain with this wording:

“There will be Twelve Khalifahs after me, all of them from Quraysh….”

Abu Dawud (2/207) and Ahmad (5/92) recorded it … and the chain is hasan, its narrators being trustworthy and narrators of (Sahih) Muslim except for al-Aswad (who is not a narrator of Sahih Muslim) but he too is truthful as is documented in “at-Taqrib” and “al-Khulasah”.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) has also called these twelve Amirs his twelve Khalifahs. In another Hadith recorded by Shaykh al-Albani in his Sahih al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib, Number 2188, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) also called these Amirs/Khalifahs “Imams”:

الأئمة من قريش إن لي عليكم حقا ولهم عليكم حقا مثل ذلك

The Imams are from Quraysh. I have a right over you (i.e. right of unconditional obedience), AND THEY HAVE A SIMILAR RIGHT OVER YOU.

Shaykh al-Albani says:

صحيح لغيره

Sahih via corroboration

Closely connected to the above Hadith is this Qur’anic verse 17:71:

يوم ندعو كل أناس بامامهم

The Day We shall summon EVERY people with their Imam.

This corroborates the fact that every human era has its Imam, a sole Imam. Shaykh al-Kulayni (رضي الله عنه), in his al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 215, Hadith Number 1 records:

عن محمد بن يحيى ، عن أحمد بن محمد ، عن الحسن بن محبوب ، عن عبد الله بن غالب ، عن جابر ، عن أبي جعفر ( عليه السلام ) قال : قال : لما نزلت هذه الآية ( يوم ندعو كل أناس بامامهم ) قال المسلمون : يا رسول الله ألست إمام الناس كلهم أجمعين ؟ قال فقال رسول الله ( صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ) : أنا رسول الله إلى الناس أجمعين ولكن سيكون من بعدي أئمة على الناس من الله من أهل بيتي يقومون في الناس فيكذبون ويظلمهم أئمة الكفر والضلال وأشياعهم فمن والاهم واتبعهم وصدقهم فهو مني ومعي وسيلقاني ألا ومن ظلمهم وكذبهم فليس مني ولا معي وأنا منه برئ .

Narrated Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him:

When the verse {The Day We shall summon EVERY people with their Imam} was revealed, the Muslims asked: “O Allah’s Apostle, are you not the Imam for all mankind without exception?” Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him and his family, said: “I am Allah’s Apostle to all mankind without exception. However there shall be after me Imams appointed by Allah over mankind from my Ahl al-Bayt. They shall rise among the people and shall be called liars and oppressed by the Imams of disbelief and misguidance and their followers. Whoever befriends them (i.e. these Imams from the Ahl al-Bayt) and their followers and accepts the truth of their words is from me, and is with me, and will soon meet me. Verily, whoever oppresses them (i.e. the Ahl al-Bayt Imams and their followers) and belies them is NOT from me, and is NOT with me, and I dissociate myself from him.

Al-Majlisi (رضي الله عنه) says in Mirat al-Uqul, vol. 2, p. 442 about this Hadith:

صحيح

Sahih.

Shaykh Hadi al-Najafi (رضي الله عنه) in his al-Mawsu’at, vol. 6, p. 232 also says about the same Hadith:

الرواية صحيحة الاسناد

The report has a Sahih chain.

It is to be noted that the number of Amirs/Khalifahs/Imams who will rule this whole Ummah till the Day of Resurrection will NEVER exceed TWELVE. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad 4/28, 62, Numbers 3781 and 3859 (Cairo: Dar al-Hadith), edited by Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, records:

عن مسروق قال: «كنّا جلوساً عند عبد الله بن مسعود وهو يُقرئنا القرآن فقال له رجل يا أبا عبد الرحمن هل سألتم رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم كم تملك هذه الأمة من خليفة فقال عبد الله بن مسعود ما سألني عنها أحد منذ قدمت العراق قبلك ثم قال: نعم ولقد سألنا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: اثنا عشر كعدة نقباء بني إسرائيل»

Narrated Masruq:

We were sitting with ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, and he was reciting the Qur’an to us. Then, a man asked him: “O father of Abd al-Rahman, did you ever ask the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, how many Khalifahs will rule this Ummah?” Ibn Mas’ud answered: “No one else has asked me this question since I arrived in Iraq. Yes, we asked him, and he said: ‘Twelve, like the chieftains of Banu Israil.’”

The Salafi editor, Ahmad Muhammad Shakir, states about the Hadith:

إسناده صحيح

Its chain is sahih.

According to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم), the possessors of the Amr in Qur’an 4:59 are his twelve Khalifahs whom he himself appointed as Amirs and Imams over this Ummah till the Day of Resurrection. They, according to Allah (تبارك و تعالى) and His Messenger, are PARTNERS with the Prophet of Allah in obedience. The first of the Amirs/Khalifahs/Imams, according to this Hadith recorded by al-Hakim, in his al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, p. 121 (Dar al-Ma’rifah), was Imam Ali (عليه السّلام):

أخبرنا أبو أحمد محمد بن محمد الشيباني من أصل كتابه ثنا علي بن سعيد بن بشير الرازي بمصر ثنا الحسن ابن حماد الحضرمي ثنا يحيى بن يعلى ثنا بسام الصيرفي عن الحسن بن عمرو الفقيمي عن معاوية بن ثعلبة عن أبي ذر رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله من أطاعني فقد أطاع الله ومن عصاني فقد عصى الله ومن أطاع عليا فقد أطاعني ومن عصى عليا فقد عصاني

Narrated Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him:

Allah’s Apostle, peace be upon him, said: “Whoever obeys me has obeyed Allah, and whoever disobeys me has disobeyed Allah. Whoever obeys Ali has obeyed me, and whoever disobeys Ali has disobeyed me.

Al-Hakim states:

هذا حديث صحيح الاسناد ولم يخرجاه

This Hadith has a Sahih chain although they have not recorded it.

Al-Dhahabi too states:

صحيح الإسناد و لم يخرجاه

(This Hadith) has a Sahih chain although they have not recorded it.

Imam Ali (عليه السّلام) is the first of the twelve Amirs appointed by Allah’s Apostle. Considering that he is also the first of the divine guides mentioned in Qur’an 13:7, we know that the Amir, Khalifah, Imam, and Guide is the same person. Yes, there are only twelve guides till the Day of Resurrection, and EVERY era of Muslims after the Prophet’s death has its own Guide. Lastly, there are never more than one Amir/Khalifah/Imam/Guide at a time on the earth.

The Shi’a scholar, Shaykh Hasan Abdullah ‘Ali al-‘Ajmi (رضي الله عنه) also records these authentic Shi’a Hadiths in his Sahih Min Kitab Basair al-Darajat, Numbers 166 and 170:

(166) حدثنا محمد بن عيسى عن الحسن بن محبوب والحجال عن العلاء عن محمد بن مسلم عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: لا تبقى الأرض بغير امام طاهر.

* صحيحة سندا رجالها ثقات.

Narrated Muhammad ibn Muslim:

Abu Ja’far, peace be upon him, said:

The earth can never survive without the presence of a pure Imam.

Its chain is sahih. Its narrators are trustworthy.

And:

(170) حدثنا الهيثم النهدي عن أبيه عن يونس بن يعقوب قال:

سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول لو لم يكن في الدنيا الا اثنان لكان الامام أحدهما .

* إسنادها حسن .

Narrated Yunus ibn Ya’qub:

Abu Abdullah, peace be upon him, said: “Even if only two people remain on the earth, one of them will be the Imam.”

Its chain is hasan.

Shaykh al-Kulayni (رضي الله عنه) in his al-Kafi, Vol. 1, p. 286 records:

عن أبي بصير قال سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن قول الله عز وجل : ” أطيعوا الله وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي الأمر منكم ” فقال : نزلت في علي بن أبي طالب والحسن والحسين عليهم السلام

Narrated Abu Basir:

I asked Abu Abdullah, peace be upon him, about the verse “O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and the possessors of the Amr among you”, he said: “It was revealed about Ali ibn Abi Talib, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be upon them.”
Al-Majlisi (رضي الله عنه) says about this Hadith in his Mirat al-Uqul, Vol. 3, p. 213:

صحيح

Sahih.

Sayyid al-Khui (رضي الله عنه) also declares it Sahih in his book, al-Bayan fi Tafsir al-Qur’an, p. 232.
Shaykh al-Saduq (رضي الله عنه) also records in his al-Khisal, p. 475:


حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه قال : حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله بن أبي خلف قال : حدثني يعقوب بن يزيد ، عن حماد بن عيسى ، عن عبد الله بن مسكان
، عن أبان بن – تغلب ، عن سليم بن قيس الهلالي ، عن سلمان الفارسي رحمه الله قال : دخلت على النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وإذا الحسين عليه السلام على فخذيه وهو يقبل عينيه ويلثم فاه ، وهو يقول : أنت سيد ابن سيد ، أنت إمام ابن إمام أبو الأئمة ، أنت حجة ابن حجة أبو حجج تسعة من صلبك ، تاسعهم قائمهم
Narrated Salman al-Farsi:

I entered upon the Prophet, peace be upon him and his family, and al-Husayn, peace be upon him, was on his thigh, and he was kissing al-Husayn’s mouth, saying: “You are a master, son of a master. You are an Imam, son of an Imam, and father of Imams. You are a Hujjah, son of a Hujjah and father of Hujjahs. There will be nine Hujjahs from your loins, and their ninth will be their Qa-im (al-Mahdi).

Sayyid al-Khui (رضي الله عنه) declares it Sahih in his Mu’jam al-Rijal, vol. 9, p. 234

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