it is mentioned in tafsir qummi, it is a lengthy narration, however, i am just presenting relevant part of it

فلما كان بعد هذا جاء علي عليه السلام إلى أبي بكر وهو في المسجد وحوله المهاجرون والانصار، فقال يا ابا بكر ! لم منعت فاطمة ميراثها من رسول الله؟ وقد ملكته في حياة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله

imam ali asws came to abu bakar, and he was in mosque, and mohajirs and ansar were there, so he said

“o abu bakar! why did you not give to bibi fatima asws heritage from holy prophet? no doubt, she owned it in the life time of holy prophet asws”

[tafsir qummi, vol 2, page 156]

the chain mentioned by ali bin ibrahim qummi is

حدثني أبي عن ابن أبي عمير عن عثمان بن عيسى وحماد بن عثمان عن أبي عبدالله عليه السلام

ali bin ibrahim, his father, ibn abi umair and hamad bin uthman are all thiqa

the same narration is mentioned by sudooq in his illal sharai, vol 1, page 190-191, chapter 150, hadeeth 1; and this in deed means that the narration is correctly mentioned in tafsir qummi

the sanad of sudooq is like this

1 – أبى رحمه الله قال: حدثنا علي بن ابراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبى عمير
عمن ذكره عن أبى عبد الله ”

sudooq just mentioned his chain till ibn abi umair, this is due to his glory since even his maraseel are accepted

you can read more about him in naqd-ur-rijal, tifrashi