this article is a translation of this thread of brother ismail deobandi

famous historian and great scholar of hadeeth, umar bin sheba wrote in his history book, tareekh madina munawara

حدثنا موسى بن إسماعيل قال، حدثنا حماد بن سلمة قال، حدثنا ثابت، عن هلال بن أمية: أن عمر رضي الله عنه استعمل عياض بن غنم على الشام، فبلغه، أنه اتخذ حماما، واتخذ نوابا، فكتب إليه أن يقدم عليه، فقدم، فحجبه ثلاثا، ثم أذن له، ودعا بجبة صوف فقال: البس هذه، وأعطاه كنف الراعي وثلاثمائة شاة، وقال: انعق بها، فنعق بها، فلما جاوز هنيهة قال: أقبل، فأقبل يسعى حتى أتاه، فقال: اصنع بها كذا وكذا، اذهب. فذهب حتى إذا تباعد ناداه يا عياض أقبل، فلم يزل يردده حتى عرقه في جبته، قال: أوردها علي يوم كذا وكذا، فأوردها لذلك اليوم، فخرج عمر رضي الله عنه إليه فقال: انزع عليها. فاستقى حتى ملا الحوض فسقاها، ثم قال، انعق بها فإذا كان يوم كذا فأوردها، فلم يزل يعمل به حتى مضى شهران، قال: فاندس إلى امرأة عمر رضي الله عنها وكان بينه وبينها قرابة، فقال: سلي أمير المؤمنين فيم وجد علي ؟ فلما دخل عليها قالت: يا أمير المؤمنين فيم وجدت على عياض ؟ قال يا عدوة الله، وفيم أنت وهذا، ومتى كنت تدخلين بيني وبين المسلمين ؟ إنما أنت لعبة يلعب بك، ثم تتركين

تاریخ المدینة المنورة//جلد،2//صفحہ،21//دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

our topic of discussion in this narration is that part where umar told his wife that women are like toys, you play with them and then leave them


but before going into it, we will see the chain of narrators and discuss that in detail inshallah


STATUS OF THIS NARRATION IN LIGHT OF RULES OF AHADEETH

there is a huge chance of break in the chain since thabit bin aslam albanani is a taba’i and he did not get the time to meet halal bin umayya, and even if we accept that saying of ata bin ajlan, who is matrook though, still we can just say that halal bin umayya lived till time of reign of mawia, and still it wont be possible that he heard the narration since thabit was born in year 41 hijri

and that is why ibn hajar writes

وأخرج ابن شاهين، من طريق عطاء بن عجلان، عن مكحول، عن عكرمة بن هلال بن أميّة- أنه أتى عمر فذكر قصّة اللّعان مطوّلة. وهذا لو ثبت لدلّ على أنّ هلال بن أميّة عاش إلى خلافة معاوية حتى أدرك عكرمة الرواية عنه،ولکن عطاء بن عجلان متروک

الاصابة في تمييز الصحابة//جلد،6//صفحہ،428//طبعه دار الكتب العلميه

but by casting doubt of breakage/inqita’a on the chain, one cannot say that the narration can not be used as evidence. this is an opinion which shows that the person is ignorant of rules of ahadeeth. this is because this narration cannot be charged with INQITA’A, rather we say that this narration comes under the heading of MURSAL in the light of the rules devised by scholars of ahlusunnah. and mursal narrations can be used as evidence in view of three imams (abu hanifa, malik, ahmad bin hanbal)


DIFFERENCE IN DEFINITION OF MURSAL AND MUQATI’I

before going into details of chain, and narrators; first of all, let us point out the differences which scholars had in regards to definition of mursal and monqati’i.

and we would like to add tthat regarding khabar-e-wahid/single report; there are two types

1- khabar-e-maqbool = accepted narration
2- khabar-e-mardood = rejected narration

there are many reasons for rejecting khabar-e-mardood, but technically they can be divided into two

1- break/isqaat in the chain, i.e, if there is a narrator missing
2- accusation on narrator , i.e, if there is criticism on the narrator


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MURSAL AND MUNQATI’I NARRATION IN VIEW OF USOOLEEN AND KHATEEB BAGHDADI

we will talk about rejecting a narration when a narrator is missing
this means break in sanad, and this is called inqita’a, and narration is called monqati’i

now, break can be of any time
narrator can miss from start of chain, from middle of chain, from end of it
one narrator can be missing, many can be missing

they are all reasons of it. but this definition of break/inqita’a is for usooleen and some scholars of hadeeth. amongst them is khateeb baghdaadi, ibn abdul bar etc. that means, for them, there is no difference between monqati’i and mursal

however, other scholars of hadeeth do differentiate between the two

that is, there is difference between mursal and munqati’i and their application. we will explain this difference in detail keeping in view the authentic books on this issue. first we will explain the view of khateeb baghdaadi and ibn abdul bar who do not differentiate between the two.

imam nauwi writes in moqaddama/preface of sharah/explanation of sahih muslim


واما المرسل فھو عند الفقھاء واصحاب الاصول والخطیب الحافظ ابی بکر البغدادی وجماعة من المحدثین ما انقطع اسناده علی أی وجه کان انقطاعه فھو عندھم بمعنی المنقطع وقال جماعات من المحدثین أو أکثرھم لا یسمی مرسلا

مقدمہ شرح صحیح مسلم//جلد،1//صفحہ،30// طبعہ قاھرہ مصر


that is, definition of mursal in view of fuqaha and people of usool and khateeb and a group from scholars of hadeeth is that there is break in sanad, no matter what type of break it is, it is of type of monqati’i, in opposition to jamhoor scholars of hadeeth, they do not name any narration mursal

hafiz zain ud deen abdul raheem iraqi wrote a book in science of rules of ahadeeth, its name is “nazm ud darar fi ilm ul athar” [ “نظم الدرر فی علم الاثر”]. this book is famous by the name of “alfiyat al iraqi” [“ألفیة العراقی”]. he wrote explanation of this book himself. but the best explanation of this book was by hafiz mohammad bin abdul rehman al sakhawi which is named “fath ul mugheeth fi sharah alfiyat al hadeeth” “فتح المغیث فی شرح ألفیة الحدیث” . hafiz sakhawi explained it and wrote

المرسل ما سقط راو من سندہ سواء کان فی اوله أو آخره أو بینھما واحد او اکثر….بحیث یدخل فیه المنقطع والمعضل والمعلق، وھو ظاھر عبارة الخطیب حیث اطلق الانقطاع…والمعروف فی الفقہ واصوله ان [ذالک کله] ای المنقطع والمعضل یسمی مرسلا، قال والیه ذھب من اھل الحدیث الخطیب و قطع به

فتح المغیث بشرح الفیة الحدیث//جلد1//صفحہ154// دارالکتب العلمیه بیروت

that is, mursal narration is that which has a narrator missing in chain, whether it is from start or end, whether it is one narrator missing or many, whether it is monqati’i, mu’dil, mu’liq, all are named mursal. and this is what is clear from saying of khateeb when he applied inqita’a. …..and this is known in fiqh and usoolis that break in chain of any type, munqati’i and mudil, comes in heading of mursal as has been the view of khateeb, and his opinion is final

hafiz ibn rajab hanbali wrote a great explanation of al-ilal by tirmidhi, and anyone who is aware of this science of ahadeeth, atleast, he will not reject that. in that book, while explaining the view of khateeb etc, ibn rajab wrote

أما الخطيب البغدادي فقد أطلق المرسل على ما انقطع إسناده مطلقا

شرح علل الترمذي//صفحہ 183// طبعہ مكتبة الرشد رياض

khateeb has termed any narration mursal which has break of any type

hafiz ibn salah has written a book named, moqaddama ibn salah, this book is one of the most famous books of rules of ahadeeth. scholars of later era consulted this book as a source which speaks of the status of this book. he wrote in this book

والمعروف فی الفقه واصوله أن کل ذالک یسمی مرسلا والیه ذھب من اھل الحدیث ابو بکر الخطیب و قطع به

معرفۃ انواع علم الحدیث//صفحہ35// طبعہ دارالکتاب العربی بیروت

“it is known in fiqh and usoolis that they named any thing mursal which had break, this is the final saying of abu bakar khateb

hafiz ibn kather wrote a summary of the book of ibn salah, and it is named “ikhtisaar uloom ul hadeeth”. its explanation has been written by sheikh ahmad shakir by the name of “al baith ul hatheeth”. and sheikh nasir ud deen albany has written footnotes to it. ibn kather wrote in his book

ومنھم من قال المنقطع مثل المرسل وھو کل مالا یتصل اسناده
۔
اختصار علوم الحدیث//صفحہ164//طبعہ مكتبة المعارف رياض

“some of the mohadatheen (refereing to khateeb) say that munqati’i narration is like mursal in that all have not connected chain

nauwi wrote a famous book of rules of science of hadeeth, “al taqreeb wa al taiseer”. its sharah/explanation has been written by sayooti and its significance be judged by the fact that his book “tadreeb ur rawi fi sharah taqreeb un nauwi” is taught in madaris
sayooti writes in his book

المنقطع الصحیح الذی ذھب الیه الفقھاء والخطیب وابن عبد البر وغیرھم من المحدثین ان المنقطع ما لم یتصل اسنادہ علی أی وجه کان انقطاعه سواء کان الساقط منه الصحابی او غیره فھو والمرسل واحد

تدریب الراوی شرح تقریب النووی//صفحہ،181// طبعہ احیاء التراث العربی

“correct view in regards to munqati’i is of schoars of fiqh and khateeb and ibn abdul bar etc that there is break in sanad/chain no matter which type of break it is. whether narrator missing is sahabi or any other person, it is broken. for them, munqati’i and mursal are one”

APPLICATION OF MUQATI’I ON MURSAL

what we had written so far, it shows the view of khateeb and inb abdul bar etc; and this tells us that these people did not differentiate between munqati’i and mursal, rather it means same to them. and that is why these people have applied the word mursal on those narrations which were munqati’i. ibn hajar points to this that jamhoor mohadatheen differentiate between the two but others do not differentiate between them. he wrote a book named “nakhba tul fikr fi mustalah ahlul athar” [ “نخبة الفکر فی مصطلح أھل الاثر”] which is concise book on this topic. ibn hajar himself wrote its explanation. which is named “nazhat al nazaar fi tazeeh nakhbat ul fikr” [“نزھة النظر في توضيح نخبة الفكر”], and it is better than other books on this issue

he writes

وقریب من ھذا اختلافھم فی المنقطع والمرسل ھل ھما متغایران او لا؟ فاکثر المحدثین علی التغایر لکنه عند اطلاق الاسم واما عند استعمال الفعل المشتق فیستعملون الارسال فقط فیقولون ارسله فلان سوآء کان ذالک مرسلا او منقطعا، ومن ثمة اطلق غیر واحد ممن لم یلاحظ مواقع استعمالھم علی کثیر من المحدثین انھم لا یغایرون بین المرسل والمنقطع

نزھة النظر فی توضیح نخبة الفکر// صفحہ66

he writes that whether munqati’i and mursal are one or separate? most of the scholars of hadeeth separate them, but this is to the extent of definition only, otherwise even those who do not believe in differentiation, even they use to word mursal even if the narration is mursal or munqati’i since they do not differentiate between the two

hafiz sakhawai has explained it with examples in regards to application of mursal on munqati’i, and that bukhari, abu daood, tirmidhi etc had applied it in this way. so he wrote

وممن اطلق المرسل علی المنقطع من ائمتنا أبو زرعة و أبو حاتم ثم الدارقطنی ثم البیھقی بل صرح البخاری فی حدیث لابراھیم بن یزید النخعی عن أبی سعید الخدری بانه مرسل لکون ابراھیم لم یسمع من أبی سعید و کذا صرح ھو و أبوداود فی حدیث لعون بن عبد اللہ بن عتبة بن مسعود بانه مرسل لکونه لم یدرک ابن مسعود والترمذی فی حدیث لابن سیرین عن حکیم بن حزام بانه مرسل وانما رواه ابن سیرین عن یوسف بن ماھک عن حکیم وھو الذی مشی علیه أبو داود فی مراسیله فی آخرین

فتح المغیث شرح الفیة الحدیث//جلد1//صفحہ155//طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ


he says: those who applied mursal on munqati’i include abu zara, abu hatim razi, darqutni, behqi; and bukhari apaplied it to those narrations of ibrahim nakhai who he did from abu saeed khidri, and they labelled it mursal though their hearing is not proven. similarly, bukhari and abu daood used ti on those narration where aun bin abdullah bin atba from ibn masood, they called it mursal since hearing of aun from ibn masood is not proven. similarly, tirmidhi has termed narrations of ibn seereen from hakeem bin hazim as mursal, though ibn seeren took that from yousaf bin mahik and he took from hakeem

similarly, hafiz mohammad bin abdur rehman mubarak puri wrote in moqadama of sharah tirmidhi

واستعمل الترمذی لفظ المرسل بمعنی المنقطع فی کثیر من المواضع وکذالک غیره من المحدثین استعملوا المرسل بمعنی المنقطع

مقدمہ تحفة الاحوذی شرح جامع الترمذی// صفحہ393// طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ

tirmidhi has used on many places mursal in meaning of munqati’i. and simlar to him, many scholars have used mursal in meaning of munqati’i

VIEW OF IMAM HAKIM AND OTHER JAMHOOR SCHOLARS OF HADEETH

we have given in detail the view of those who take mursal and munqati’i as one
now, we come to those who differentiate between the two.

DEFINITION OF MUNQATI’I

one of the firsts book on rules of science of hadeeth is “al mohadith ul fasil bain al rawi wa al wahi’i” [“المحدث الفاصل بین الراوی والواعی”]. author of this book is abu mohammad hasan ramahar mazi (died 360 hijri). then we have the book by hakim neshapuri, “maarifat uloom ul hadeeth” [“معرفة علوم الحدیث” ]. in this book, we see hakim saying

والنوع الثالث من المنقطع ان یکون فی الاسناد روایة راو لم یسمع من الذی یروی عنه الحدیث قبل الوصول الی التابعی الذی ھو موضع الارسال ولا یقال لھذا النوع من الحدیث مرسل انما یقال له منقطع

معرفة علوم الحدیث// صفحہ28// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

munqati’i means that there is a narrator who narrates from someone who is one degree up then him from whom he had not heard hadeeth (that means that mr x narrates from mr z, rather than via mr y:slave of ahlubait), but this is something which should be before tabai’i. because once it reaches to tabai’i, then it is place for irsaal (it means that we would then call it mursal:slave of ahlubait). such a narration (the one defined before) is munqati’i

by adding the saying “tabai is place of irsal”, hakim has clarified the definition of munqati’i. this is the differentiating point between the two.

if there is a gap in narrators before tabai’i, it is munqati’i
if it is after tabai’i, it is mursal

after hakim, those who came kept it so

we would quote what nauwi wrote in this regards

فان انقطع قبل التابعی واحد او اکثر قال الحاکم وغیره من المحدثین لا یسمی مرسلا بل یختص المرسل بالتابعی عن النبی فان سقط قبله فھو منقطع

التقریب والتیسیر لمعرفة سنن البشیر النذیر// صفحہ34// طبعہ دارالکتاب العربی

if there is a break before tabai’i, hakim etc say that is munqati’i. because mursal is specific to tabai’i (whether tabai’i is young or elder, it is same as per sayings of aimmah:ismail deobandi)


DEFINITION OF MURSAL

Hakim defines it as

فان مشائخ الحدیث لم یختلفوا فی ان الحدیث المرسل ھو الذی یرویه المحدث باسانید متصلة الی التابعی

معرفة علوم الحدیث// صفحہ25// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

great teachers of hadeeth do not differ in this that mursal is that hadeeth which has its chain connected till tabai’i

hafiz explains it as

والثانی ھو ما سقط فی آخره من بعد التابعی ھو المرسل

نزھة النظر شرح نخبة الفکر//صفحہ399// طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ

that narration in which there is break after tabai’i is mursal


SUMMARY OF THIS DISCUSSION

it is clear from the explanation of hakim and ibn hajar that the narration which we gave is mursal
because it is broken after tabai’i, and from author to aslam al banani, it is connected. and it is clear that he was a great tabai’i.
and it is hujjat as per three imams (abu hanifa, malik, ahmad bin hanbal)


STATUS OF MURSAL NARRATION

hakim wrote a book “al akeel” [ “الاکلیل”] which deals with the same science. however, it is very concise, so hakim wrote a sermon to this which is named “al modkhil ila maarifat kitab al akeel” [“المدخل الی معرفة کتاب الاکلیل” ]
in that hakim wrote

فالقسم الاول منھا المراسیل وھو قول الامام التابعی او تابع التابعی قال رسول اللہ [ص] وبینه وبین رسول اللہ [ص] قرن او قرنان، ولا یذکر سماعه فیه من الذی سمعه [والمعتمد ما قاله الحاکم فی المعرفة] فھذہ احادیث صحیحة عند جماعة ائمة اھل الکوفة کابراھیم بن یزید النخعی وحماد بن ابی سلیمان و أبی حنیفة النعمان بن ثابت و أبی یوسف یعقوب بن ابراھیم القاضی و أبی عبد اللہ محمد بن الحسن الشیبانی فمن بعدھم من ائمتھم محتج بھا عند جماعتھم

المدخل الی معرفة کتاب الاکلیل// صفحہ108// طبعہ دارابن حزم بیروت

mursal means that saying of tabai’i or taba tabai’i which he quotes from holy prophet asws, when there is a gap of 1 or 2 people between him and prophet asws. but he does not mention that from whom he took the narration [researcher of the book, ahmad bin faris al saloom writes in explanation of this saying that authentic definition of mursal is that which hakim gave in maarifaat uloom ul hadeeth. which means that only saying of tabai are accepted; and not taba tabai’i: ismail deobandi]. and status of mursal is that mursal narrations are authentic as per a group of people of kufa which included ibrahim nakhai, hamad bin abi suliman, abu hanifa, abu yousaf, imam moohammad, and other imams who came after them, and it can be used for the sake of argument

hafiz abu naeem isfahani added some other rules to the book of hakim, maarifat uloom ul hadeeth, his book is by the name of “al mustakhrij ala maarifat uloom ul hadeeth” [ “المستخرج علی معرفة علوم الحدیث”]. then comes the name of khateeb baghdaadi who wrote many books in this regard. one of them is “al kafaya fi ilm ur riwaya” [ “الکفایة فی علم الروایة”]. and it stands very high in field of usool-e-hadeeth.

he writes in status of mursal narration

وقد اختلف العلماء فی وجوب العمل بما ھذه حاله فقال بعضھم انه مقبول ویجب العمل به اذا کان المرسل ثقة عدلا وھذا قول مالک و أھل المدینة و أبی حنیفة و أھل العراق وغیرھم

الکفایة فی علم الروایة// صفحہ333// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

there is difference of opinion in regards to acting on mursal narrations. some say that it is accepted and it is must to act on it. others say that if the narrator is thiqa and just, then it is must to act on it. this is the saying of malik, abu hanifa, people of madina and iraq etc

hafiz bin rajab hanbali wrote in regards to taking evidence from mursal narration that

وقد استدل کثیر من الفقھاء بالمرسل وھو الذی ذکره اصحابنا انه الصحیح عن الامام احمد وھو قول أبی حنیفة واصحابه واصحاب مالک ایضا

شرح علل الترمذی// صفحہ116// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت


a huge number of fuqaha have taken evidence from mursal, and this is what our companions have narrated from ahmad bin hanbal, and this is the saying of abu hanifa, and his companions, companions of malik as well.

hafiz dhabi’s book al mawaqiza fi ilm mastalah ul hadeeth” [ “الموقظة فی علم مصطلح الحدیث” ] is one of the most authentic and concise books on this science. he wrote regarding mursal

نعم و ان صح الاسناد الی تابعی متوسط الطبقة کمراسیل مجاھد و ابراھیم والشعبی فھو مرسل جید لا باس به

الموقظة فی علم مصطلح الحدیث// صفحہ39// طبعہ مکتب المطبوعات الاسلامیہ بیروت

if chain till tabai’i is sahih, and he is from middle group like mujahid, ibrahim nakhai’i, sho’bi, then that mursal is great and there is no problem

sheikh tahib bin salih damishqi al jazai’ri, who is a researcher from egypt, he wrote a book “tojeeh un nazar ila ilm ul athar” [“توجیه النظر الی علم الاثر”]. this book is very comprehensive and scholars of present era accept its significance

he writes status of mursal in view of people of kufa that

واما مشائخ اھل الکوفة فان عندھم ان کل حدیث ارسله أحد من التابعین أو أتباع التابعین أو من بعدھم من العلماء فانه یقال له مرسل وھو محتج به

توجیه النظر الی علم الاثر// صفحہ166// مطبوعہ مصر

shayookh/teachers of people of kufa , for them, hadeeth which is mursal from any of tabaeen or taba tabaeen or those scholars who came after them, they can be used for argument


IJMA’A/CONSENSUS ON ACCEPTANCE OF MURSAL IN VIEW OF TABAEEN

We have already said that mursal narrations are hujjat/correct in view of ibrahim nakhai, abu hanifa, malik and other scholars of kufa, madina, ahmad bin habnal etc.
apart from this, sayooti wrote in tadreeb ur rawi regarding status of mursal, and he gave 10 different views, their explanation is not our topic. however, the conditions which malik had set for taking evidence from mursal are that tabai’i should be thiqa/trustworthy. and also, he does irsal from thiqa because thiqa tabai’i wont narrate unless he hears from thiqa. that is why people did not object to maraseel of tabaeen. and as per saying of ibn jurair, there was ijma/consensus on acceptance of mursal in view of tabaeen. and even after them, there was no objection on maraseel till 2nd century hijri till imam shafai became the first to do so

therefore, sayooti writes

وقال ابن جریر أجمع التابعون بأسرھم علی قبول المرسل ولم یأت عنھم انکاره ولا عن أحد من الائمة بعدھم الی رأس المئتين قال ابن عبد البر کأنه یعنی ان الشافعی اول من رده

تدریب الراوی//صفحہ 171//طبعہ دار احیاء التراث العربی

ibn juriar said that there is consensus in tabaeen in acceptance of maraseel, and none of them rejected it, and none aimmah did so till 2nd hijri, and ibn abdul bar said that shafai’i was first to do so

so as per the condition of hafiz dhabi, that if the irsal is from a tabai’i who is from middle category, then mursal is hujjat. let us see if the narration we presented, fulfills this criteria. but this must be kept in mind that this condition is not for ahnaf/hanfis. this is because they believe in mursal of even taba tabai’i as we have written before

ANALYSIS OF CHAIN OF NARRATION

Chain of the narration is this

narrated to me musa bin ismail, he said narrated to me hamad bin salma, he said narrated to me thabit from halal bin umayya

the issue is that thabit did not hear from halal, and that makes the narration mursal

now, we have to prove that thabit is thiqa, and does irsaal from thiqa
and naturally, it is also a criteria that hamad bin salma and musa bin ismail are also thiqa


THABIT BIN ASLAM AL BANANI

he is the main character of the narration, and is counted as a great tabai’i from basra and scholar of hadeeth as well. he narrated from anas bin malik, abdullah bin umar, abdullah bin zubair. his trustworthiness is proven. ahmad bin hanbal was asked as to who is more thiqa, thabit or qatada. he replied that thabit is more authentic/steadfast in hadeeth. simlarly, abu hatim razi said that in companions of anas bin malik, thabit is the 2nd most steadfast after zuhri, and then is qatada. nisai and ijli also termed him thiqa. as has been said by mizzi in his tehzeb ul kamal

وقال ابو طالب سالت احمد بن حنبل قلت ثابت اثبت او قتادة؟ قال ثابت یتثبت فی الحدیث، وقال احمد بن عبد اللہ العجلی ثقة رجل صالح، وقال النسائی ثقة، وقال ابو حاتم اثبت اصحاب انس الزھری ثم ثابت ثم قتادة

تھذیب الکمال فی اسماء الرجال//جلد 2//صفحہ 149//دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

though we do not need to give more references for proving our point. but to give more strength to our point, let us give the opinion of imam of jarah and tadeel, ibn addi al jarjani

he said

وثابت البناني من تابعي أهل البصرة وزهادهم ومحدثيهم وقد كتب عَن الأئمة والثقات من النَّاس وأروى النَّاس عَنْهُ حَمَّاد بْن سلمة وما هُوَ إلا ثقة صدوق وأحاديثه أحاديث صالحة مُسْتَقِيمَةٌ إِذَا رَوَى عَنْهُ ثِقَةٌ وله حديث كثير، وَهو من ثقات المسلمين وما وقع فِي حديثه من النكرة فليس ذاك مِنْهُ إِنَّمَا هُوَ من الراوي عَنْهُ لأنه قد روى عَنْهُ جماعة ضعفاء ومجهولين، وإِنَّما هُوَ فِي نفسه إِذَا روى عَمَّن هُوَ فوقه من مشايخه فهو مستقيم الحديث ثقة۔

الکامل فی ضعفاء الرجال//جلد،2 صفحہ،308// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

thabit al banani, he is a tabai’i from people of basra. he was counted as a pious man and a scholar of hadeeth. he noted down narrations from imams and trustworthy people from people. and from him most narrations were taken up by hamad bin salma. he is thiqa and truthful as well. and his narrations from him are good and strong with the condition that the one narration from him (that means from hamad) is thiqa. there are many narrations narrated from thabit and his a thiqa amongst muslims. and there are some rejections in his narrations but that is not from his side, rather those who took from him are daif/weak and majhool/unknown. and that is not from his side. and when he (thabit) narrates from his sheikhs/teachers, he narrates from thiqa who are strong/steadfast in hadeeth

so from tautheeq of ibn addi, it is clear that if some thiqa narrator is narrating from hamad bin salma, then the narration is good and can be trusted. but if some daif and unknown narrator narrates, then it would be rejected. but thabit took narrations from thiqa/trustworthy people.

so this is the first condition, and second one has been explained by dhabi that if tabai’i from middle category narrates, it is great like we see sho’bi, mujahid, ibrahim nakhai etc.

now, as regards to categories, ibrahim nakhai is from 5th category
and thabit is from 4th category

so, this means that thabit is in this category for sure

therefore, hafiz writes

ابراھیم بن یزید بن قیس بن الاسود النخعی ابو عمران الکوفی الفقیه ثقة، الا انہ یرسل کثیرا، من الخامسة۔

ثابت بن اسلم البنانی بضم الموحدة ونونین مخففین أبو محمد البصری، ثقة،عابد، من الرابعة۔

تقریب التھذیب// جلد1//صفحہ69//صفحہ145//طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ

HAMAD BIN SALMA

though we have proven his tautheeq from ibn addi, but still let us see more people like yahya bin saeed, yahya bin moin, ahmad bin hanbal, and then scholars of later times like dhabi

dhabi writes

حماد بن سلمة بن دينار الامام العلم، أبو سلمة البصري.
عن أبي عمران الجونى، وثابت، وابن أبي مليكة، وعبد الله بن كثير الدارى، وخلق.وعنه مالك، وشعبة، وسفيان، وابن مهدي، وعارم، وعفان، وأمم. وكان ثقة, وقال يحيى القطان: حماد بن سلمة، عن زياد الاعلم.وقيس بن سعد ليس بذاك.وقال أحمد ويحيى: ثقة,
ميزان الاعتدال//جلد 1 صفحه 590// ,طبعه دار احياء الكتب العلميہ

hamad bin salma is imam of knowledge………..he is thiqa, yayha qatan said he is most knowledgable; ahmad bin hanbal and yahya bin moin said he is thiqa

موسی بن اسماعیل المنقری مشھور بکنیته وباسمه ثقة، ثبت، من صغار التاسعة ولا التفات الی قول ابن خراش تکلم الناس فیه
تقریب التھذیب//جلد2 صفحہ،220 // طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ کراچی

MUSA BIN ISMAIL AL MUNQARI

he is the last narrator, from him, bukhari, muslim, abu daood, nisai, tirmidhi, ibn maja took narrations
تھذیب الکمال فی اسماء الرجال//جلد10 صفحہ،147 // طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

hafiz ibn hajar sid he is thiqa and thabt, which means one of the greatest status of trustworthiness
he went on to extent that he rejected the jarah of ibn kharsh when he quoted some jarah on him, and ibn hajar said that it is not worth mentioning


موسی بن اسماعیل المنقری مشھور بکنیته وباسمه ثقة، ثبت، من صغار التاسعة ولا التفات الی قول ابن خراش تکلم الناس فیه

تقریب التھذیب//جلد2 صفحہ،220 // طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ کراچی

abu hatim razi also did tautheeq of musa bin ismail from side of yahya bin moin and abu walid tayalsi. and counted hamad bin salma as his sheikh. which proves the hearing as well. he writes

موسى بن اسماعيل أبو سلمة النقرى التبوذكى روى عن شعبة وحماد بن سلمة وابان العطار ووهيب بن خالد روى عنه أبي وأبو زرعة.نا عبد الرحمن نا الحسين بن الحسن قال سألت يحيى بن معين عن ابى سلمة التبوذكى فقال: ثقة مأمون.نا عبد الرحمن قال سمعت أبي يقول سمعت يحيى بن معين واثنى على ابى سلمة فقال: كان كيسا، وكان الحجاج بن المنهال رجلا صالحا وابو سلمة اتقنهما.نا عبد الرحمن قال سمعت ابى يقول سمعت أبا الوليد الطيالسي يقول: موسى بن اسماعيل ثقة صدوق.

الجرح والتعدیل//جلد8،صفحہ157 // طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

AUTHOR OF BOOK, UMAR BIN SHEBA AL NAMEERI AL BASARI

he is a historian, scholar of hadeeth. his truthfulness is established. dhabi termed him thiqa and said that ibn maja and abu hatim razi narrated from him. and umar himself narrated from yahya bin saeed, who is one of the firsts in ilm-ur-rijal and counted as pioneer after sho’ba bin hajaj

so, dhabi says

عمر بن شبة أبو زيد النميري ذو التصانيف، عن القطان و عبد الوھاب الثقفی، وعنه ابن ماجة وابن أبي حاتم وابن مخلد، ثقة۔
الکاشف فی معرفة من لہ روایة فی الکتب الستة//جلد2//صفحہ104// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

ibn hajar terms him sudooq, and hafiz and scholar of hadeeth from 11th category.

عمر بن شبة بفتح المعجمة و تشديد الموحدة ابن عبيدة بن زيد النميري بالنون مصغرا أبو زيد بن أبي معاذ البصري، نزيل بغداد، صدوق، له تصانيف من كبار الحادية عشرة مات سنة اثنتين و ستين

تقریب التھذیب//جلد1//صفحہ719// طبعہ قدیمی کتب خانہ



TAUTHEEQ OF THE BOOK

its importance can be seen from the fact that even salafi scholars of present era are reading this book for history, and consulting it
like we can see that ibn tahir barsanji in “sahih wa daif tareekh tibri” [“صحیح و ضعیف تاریخ طبری” ] has taken evidence from this book’s sahih/autentic chains on many occassions. this is because he is not only a historian, but also a trustworthy scholar of hadeeth
like we see dhabi saying

عمر بن شبة ابن عبيدة الحافظ العلامة الأخباري الثقة أبو زيد النميري البصري صاحب التصانيف،، وكان بصيرا بالسير والمغازي وأيام الناس صنف تاريخا للبصرة و كتابا في أخبار المدينة وغير ذالك
۔
تذكرة الحفاظ//جلد2//صفحہ517// طبعہ داراحیاء التراث العربی بیروت

in past scholars, ibn haban and khateeb did his tautheeq, and his high status in history

ibn haban writes

عمر بن شبة بن عبيدة بن زيد بن رابطة النميري، مستقيم الحديث و كان صاحب أدب و شعر و أخبار و معرفة بتاريخ الناس۔
الثقات//صفحہ786// طبعہ مکتبہ نزار مصطفی الباز مکۃ المکرمۃ

and khateeb writes

وكان ثقة عالما بالسير و أيام الناس و له تصانيف كثيرة

تاریخ بغداد//جلد11//صفحہ208// طبعہ دارالکتب العلمیہ بیروت

as regards to the quality of this book, let us see what dhabi said

عمر بن شبة بن عبدة بن زيد بن رائطة الأخباري،، وثقه الدارقطني و غير واحد، قلت صنف تاريخا كبيرا للبصرة لم نره و كتابا في أخبار المدينة رأيت نصفه يقضي بامامته

سیر أعلام النبلاء//جلد2//صفحہ2904// طبعہ بیت الأفکار الدولیة بیروت


umar bin sheba bin abda bin zaid, thiqa as per darqutni and others. i say he wrote great history….i saw half of it and that demands to term him an IMAM

this means he accepted that the book is from him. and the quality of the book is such that he says that it demands that umar is called an imam

with this, i finish this article

thank you very much

may allah help brother ismail deobandi
and give him happiness in both worlds

please keep me in duas

slave of ahlubait

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