let me share an authentic narration in this regard
it is from sahih muslim

باب الاستسرار بالإيمان للخائف
149 حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ومحمد بن عبد الله بن نمير وأبو كريب واللفظ لأبي كريب قالوا حدثنا أبو معاوية عن الأعمش عن شقيق عن حذيفة قال كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال أحصوا لي كم يلفظ الإسلام قال فقلنا يا رسول الله أتخاف – ص 132 – علينا ونحن ما بين الست مائة إلى السبع مائة قال إنكم لا تدرون لعلكم أن تبتلوا قال فابتلينا حتى جعل الرجل منا لا يصلي إلا سرا

[sahih muslim, book of eman, chapter 67, hadeeth 149]
online link:- http://hadith.al-islam.com/Page.aspx…ID=25&TOCID=76

let us see the english translation

CHAPTER: PERMISSIBILITY OF CONCEALING THE FAITH OF ONE WHO FEARS 

Hudhaifa reported: We were in the company of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam) when he said. Count for me those who profess al-Islam. We said: Messenger of Allaah, do you entertain any fear concerning us and we are (at this time) between six hundred and seven hundred (in strength). He (the Prophet) remarked: You don’t perceive; you may be put to some trial, He (the narrator) said: We actually suffered trial so much so that some of our men were constrained to offer their prayers in concealment.

SahihMuslim.Com

this narration is also there in al-ihsaan fi taqreeb sahih ibn haban, vol 14, page 171
and sheikh shoaib ul arnawut says about it:- chain is sahih on terms of sheikhain

please pay attention to two things

1- name of the chapter of muslim, i.e, PERMISSIBILITY OF CONCEALING THE FAITH OF ONE WHO FEARS

i guess, this is how taqayya is also defined

2- narration is from hudhaifa, and he had died after uthman, and the year was 36 hijri

as we find in tehzeeb ul kamal by mizzi

قال سعد بْن أوس، عن بلال بْن يَحْيَى: عاش حذيفة بعد قتل عثمان أربعين ليلة .

وقال مُحَمَّد بْن عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نمير، وغير واحد: مات سنة ست وثلاثين .

yahya said that he lived for 40 days after killing of uthman
and mohammad bin abdullah bin namir and others said it was 36 hijri when he died 

so, this means that this “offering of prayers in hiding” took place in “the golden era” of khilafat-e-rashida

please keep in mind that i had written before that salat had changed in era of sahaba

salat/prayers changed in the era of sahaba [authentic narration] « slave of Ahlubait’s Blog

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