We find an authentic narration mentioned by al Majlisi in Bihar ul Anwar, followed by His explanation

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31 – الخصال: أبي، عن سعد: عن ابن عيسى، عن ابن فضال، عن ابن بكير، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام قال: إن لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآلهعشرة أسماء: خمسة منها في القرآن، وخمسة ليست في القرآن، فأما التي في القرآن: فمحمد، وأحمد، وعبد الله، ويس، ون، وأما التي ليست في القرآن: فالفاتح، والخاتم، والكاف، والمقفي، والحاشر (2).

بيان: إنما سمي الفاتح لأنه أول النبيين، أو جميع المخلوقات خلقا، أو به فتح الله أبواب الوجود والجود على العباد (3)، والكاف لأنه يكف ويدفع عن الناس البلايا والشرور في الدنيا، والعذاب في الآخرة وفي بعض النسخ: الكافي.

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Imam Abu Jafar asws said that Holy Prophet asws had 10 names, 5 were in Quran and 5 were not. Those 5 which were in Quran include Mohammad, Ahmad, Abdullah, Yasin, Noon. And those which were not in Quran were: Fatih (the one who opens), Khatim (the last one), Kaaf (who prevents or stops), Maqfi and Hashir
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Explanation:- The reason he was named Fatih was that He was the first of Prophets or that of whole creation which was created or that it was with him that Allah opened the doors of all those creation or His blessings of People. And Kaaf is because it is he who stops/removes the problems of people and worries in this world and world hereafter……

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[Bihar ul Anwaar, 16/96]

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