One of the most famous allegations on Shia sect is that they believe that Sahaba (companions) of Holy Propeht (asws) are Murtads (apostates), and this means that they believe that they quit Islam.

In this short work, We would review these narrations, and see if actually the narrations mean how they are being interpretted, i.e, Quitting of Islam.

The first narration which is quoted in this regard, is a narration from Al-Kafi

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٣٤١- حنان ، عن أبيه، عن أبي جعفر (عليه السلام) قال: كان الناس أهل ردة بعد النبي (صلى الله عليه وآله) إلا ثلاثة فقلت:

ومن الثلاثة؟ فقال: المقداد بن الأسود وأبوذر الغفاري وسلمان الفارسي رحمة الله وبركاته عليهم، ثم عرف اناس بعد يسير وقال: هؤلاء الذين دارت عليهم الرحا وأبوا أن يبايعوا

حتى جاؤوا بأمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) مكرها فبايع وذلك قول الله تعالى: «وما محمد إلا رسول قد

خلت من قبله الرسل أفإن مات أو قتل انقلبتم على أعقابكم ومن ينقلب على عقبيه فلن يضر الله

شيئا وسيجزي الله الشاكرين

341- Hannan , from his father, from Abi Ja’far (asws) who said: “The people were Ahle Radda (أهل ردة) after the Prophet (asws) except three.”

So I asked: “And who were the three?”

So he (asws) said: “Al Miqdad b. al Aswad, Abu Dhar Ghafari and Salman Farsi (Allah’s mercy and blessing be upon them), then the people realized after progressing (of time).” And he said: “These were those upon whom rested the quern and they refused to pledge allegiance till they came to Ali (asws) in compulsion, then they pledged allegiance, and that is the saying of Allah (in al Qur’an 3: 144): Muhammad is no more than an apostle: many Were the apostle that passed away before him. If he died or were slain, will ye then Turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah. but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude.” (1)

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Now, in this narration, we see that the word used is (أهل ردة)

And this narration is talking about Right of Imam Ali as clear from the words

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ثم عرف اناس بعد يسير وقال: هؤلاء الذين دارت عليهم الرحا وأبوا أن يبايعوا

حتى جاؤوا بأمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) مكرها فبايع

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Allama Majlisi pointed to this as well, and said

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قوله عليه السلام:” ثم عرف أناس بعد يسير”

أن الحق مع علي فرجعوا إليه

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Saying of Imam that People came to know with passage of time that Haq/truth is with Imam Ali (asws) and so they returned to him (2)

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Let us see another narration, and this one is taken from Sheikh Kashi’s work

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علي بن الحكم، عن سيف بن عميرة عن أبي بكر الحضرمي، قال : قال أبو جعفر (عليه السلام) ارتد الناس إلا ثلاثة نفر سلمان و أبو ذر و المقداد. قال : قلت فعمار ؟

 قال : قد كان جاض جيضة ثم رجع، ثم قال إن أردت الذي لم يشك و لم يدخله شي‏ء فالمقداد، فأما سلمان فإنه عرض في قلبه عارض أن عند أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) اسم الله الأعظم لو تكلم به لأخذتهم الأرض و هو هكذا فلبب و وجئت عنقه حتى تركت كالسلقة فمر به أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) فقال له يا أبا عبد الله هذا من ذاك بايع فبايع و أما أبو ذر فأمره أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) بالسكوت و لم يكن يأخذه في الله لومة لائم فأبى إلا أن يتكلم فمر به عثمان فأمر به، ثم أناب الناس بعد فكان أول من أناب أبو ساسان الأنصاري و أبو عمرة و شتيرة و كانوا سبعة، فلم يكن يعرف حق أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) إلا هؤلاء السبعة.

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Imam Abu Jafar (asws) said that People did Irtidaad except for 3: Salman, Abu Dhar, Miqdaad

I asked: What about Ammar?

He (asws) replied: He erred a bit but then returned.

Then He (asws) said: If you wish to know who never had any doubt in his heart, he was Miqdaad. As regards to Salman, his heart also got involved since he thought that Imam Ali (asws) has The Great Name of Allah (اسم الله الأعظم) and if He prays with that, land will swallow these people. So then he was caught and rope was placed in his throat which injured his neck. Imam Ali passed by him and said: This is because of this, give bayat/allegiance/oath. So he did that. And as regards to Abu Dhar, Imam Ali told him to keep quiet, and do not speak so that none take hold of you. But he spoke and Uthman ordered him to get out of there. then people came back, and those who came first were Abu Sasan, Abu Umra and Shatera. None knew the right of Imam Ali (asws) except for these 7 (3)

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Regardless of the weakness in chain of narration (4), two important points in this narration are that the word used Irtidaad; and the narration is mainly talking about right of Imam Ali (asws), as mentioned by the words

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فلم يكن يعرف حق أمير المؤمنين (عليه السلام) إلا هؤلاء السبعة.

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So in both of these narrations, we see that the context being used it “Rights of Imam Ali (asws)”.

There are certain other narrations as well, like we find Kashi writing

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17 – محمد بن إسماعيل قال حدثني الفصل بن شاذان عن ابن أبي عمير عن إبراهيم بن عبد الحميد عن أبي بصير قال : قلت لأبي عبد الله ارتد الناس الا ثلاثة أبو ذر وسلمان والمقداد قال : فقال أبو عبد الله ع : فأين أبو ساسان وأبو عمرة الأنصاري ؟

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Imam Abu Abdullah asws was asked regarding Irtidaad of people except for three, Abu Dhar, Salman and Miqdaad. He asws replied: Where are Abu Sasan and Abu Umra al Ansari (5)

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There are certain other narrations like that we find in Kitab Sulaym bin Qais and Al Ikhtisaas , however, there are doubts on the authenticity of these two books, so we will not talk of those narrations as such.

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Now, let us talk about the words (ارتداد) and (اھل ردۃ) as to what is their meaning and if these words have been used in authentic narrations of Ahlusunnah for Sahaba.

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In this regard, we find that famous scholar of Ahlusunnah, Ibn Manzoor, who writes in his book, Lisan-ul-Arab

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والردة : الاسم من الارتداد . وفي حديث القيامة والحوض فيقال : إنهم لم يزالوا مرتدين على أعقابهم أي : متخلفين عن بعض الواجبات

Al Ridda: This is the noun in Al-Irtadaad. And in narration regarding Qayamat and Pond, it is said: ‘They apostated after you left them. This means: They disobeyed certain compulsory acts (6)

 

Ibn Athir also mentioned this in his book, Al Nihaya fi Ghareeb ul Hadeeth wal Athar, 2/214

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These narrations are authentic in view of Ahlusunnah, and are present in Sahih al Bukhari

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حدثنا أبو الوليد: حدثنا شعبة: أخبرنا المغيرة بن النعمان قال: سمعت سعيد بن جبير، عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال: خطب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال: (يا أيها الناس، إنكم محشورون إلى الله حفاة عراة غرلا، ثم قال: {كما بدأنا أول خلق نعيده وعدا علينا إنا كنا فاعلين}. إلى آخر الآية، ثم قال: ألا وإن أول الخلائق يكسى يوم القيامة إبراهيم، ألا وإنه يجاء برجال من أمتي فيؤخذ بهم ذات الشمال، فأقول: يا رب أصيحابي، فيقال: إنك لا تدري ما أحدثوا بعدك، فأقول كما قال العبد الصالح: {وكنت عليهم شهيدا ما دمت فيهم فلما توفيتني كنت أنت الرقيب عليهم وأنت على كل شيء شهيد}. فيقال: إن هؤلاء لم يزالوا مرتدين على أعقابهم منذ فارقتهم)

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Narrated Ibn Abbas: Allah’s Apostle delivered a sermon and said, “O people! You will be gathered before Allah bare-footed, naked and not circumcised.” Then (quoting Quran) he said: “As We began the first creation, We shall repeat it. A promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it..” (21.104)

The Prophet then said, “The first of the human beings to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection, will be Abraham. Lo! Some men from my followers will be brought and then will drive them to the left side (Hell-Fire). I will say. ‘O my Lord! (They are) my companions!’ Then a reply will come (from Almighty), ‘You do not know what they did after you.’ I will say as the pious slave (the Prophet Jesus) said: And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them. When You took me up. You were the Watcher over them and You are a Witness to all things.’ (5.117) Then it will be said, “These people have continued to be apostates since you left them.” (7)

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Here the word used is clearly

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مرتدين

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Similarly, we find in another narration

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فَأَقُولُ : يَا رَبِّ ، أَصْحَابِي ، فَيَقُولُ : ” إِنَّكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَكَ بِمَا أَحْدَثُوا بَعْدَكَ ، إِنَّهُمُ ارْتَدُّوا عَلَى أَدْبَارِهِمُ الْقَهْقَرَى

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So Prophet would say: They are my companions. It would be said: You do not know what they did after you, ‘They turned apostate as renegades after you left (8)

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Here, the word which can be seen is

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ارْتَدُّوا

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Interestingly, there is a chapter in Sahih Muslim, named

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باب بيان معنى قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض

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CHAPTER: DON’T BECOME UNBELIEVERS AFTER ME BY STRIKING THE NECKS OF ONE ANOTHER (9)

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And in this chapter, we find some narrations which speak about this issue

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65 حدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة ومحمد بن المثنى وابن بشار جميعا عن محمد بن جعفر عن شعبة ح وحدثنا عبيد الله بن معاذ واللفظ له حدثنا أبي حدثنا شعبة عن علي بن مدرك سمع أبا زرعة يحدث عن جده جرير قال قال لي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم في حجة الوداع استنصت الناس ثم قال لا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض وحدثنا عبيد الله بن معاذ حدثنا أبي حدثنا شعبة عن واقد بن محمد عن أبيه عن ابن عمر عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بمثله

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It is narrated on the authority of Jarir b. ‘Abdullah that the Prophet of Allaah (may peace and blessings be upon him) asked him on the occasion of the Farewell Pilgrimage to make the people silent and then said: Do not return to unbelief after me by striking the necks of one another. (10)

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So, we see that here the wordings of Kafir are present.

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كفار

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Keep in mind that this was the order of Holy Prophet asws to Sahaba. And battle of Jamal and Siffen are evident proofs that this order was not followed.

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Of course, these things have never been told to Simple minded Sunnis, since Scholars of Ahlusunnah never like to tell them that Sahaba would disobey Prophet (asws) in such a thing in which He (asws) warned them of Kufr. Sunni scholars and their publishers went to the extent that they did tehreef/tempered Sahih Muslim skipping the name of this chapter (11). Also, Nauwi tried to give 7 different interpretations for this. But this is not our subject.

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What is quite clear from these narrations is, that the words of Irtidaad, Murtad, Kafir are present in authentic narrations of Ahlusunnah for Sahaba.

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So, will this not be a good idea for Scholas of Ahlusunnah that they mention these narrations to their audiences, rather than concentrating on the words of Irtidaad and Ahlu Radda being used in Shiite narrations???

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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FOOTNOTES

 

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1- Al Kafi, Vol 8, page 246-247

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2- Miraat-ul-Uqool, Vol 26, page 214

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3- Ikhtiyaar Maarifat ur Rijal, Vol 1, page 52

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4- Famous Shia scholar, Sheikh Jafar Subhani said in his book, Adu a’ala A’qaid us Shia al Imamia, (أضواء على عقائد الشيعة الإمامية) page 523

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وكفى في ضعفها أن الكشي من أعلام القرن الرابع الهجري القمري ، فلا يصح أن يروي عن علي بن الحكم ، سواء أكان المراد منه الأنباري الراوي عن ابن عميرة المتوفى عام ( 217 ه‍ ) أو كان المراد الزبيري الذي عده الشيخ من أصحاب الرضا ( عليه السلام ) المتوفى عام 203 ه‍ .

It is sufficient to prove its weakness in that Kashi was a scholar of 4th century, so it is not correct that He can narrated from Ali bin Hakam. If we take that it is (Ali bin Hakam al anbari) who narrates from Ibn Umaira, He died in year 217 Hijri. And if we take that it means Zubairi, who was counted in companions of Imam Raza asws, then he died in year 203 hijri

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Some people made this claim that chain between Kashi and Ali bin Hakam is proven as authentic, however, it must be kept in mind that Kashi has different chains to Ali bin Hakam. Let us see an example from Ikhtiyar Maarifat ur Rijal,1/235 (اختيار معرفة الرجال),

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(93) – محمد بن مسعود، قال حدثني علي بن محمد، قال حدثني محمد بن أحمد بن يحيى، عن محمد بن الشقري، عن علي بن الحكم،

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Concentrate on MOhammad bin Shiqri. He has been termed Majhool/unknow by Agha Jawahiri in his Al Mufid

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980 – محمد بن الشقري : روى عن علي بن الحكم عن فضیل بن عثمان عن أبي الزبیر – 10953 – 10958

 قال : رأیت جابرا یتوكأ على عصاه وھو یدور في

 سكك المدینة ومجالسھم وھو یقول علي خیر البشر فمن أبى فقد كفر . . . ” – مجھول

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And, therefore, We have no clue as to what is the chain of Sheikh Kashi to Ali bin Hakam in this particular narration, which proves its weakness.

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5- Ikhtiyar Maarifat ur Rijal, Vol 1, page 38

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6- Lisan ul Arab, vol 3, page 173

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7- Sahih Bukhari, Book of Tafseer. Online link for English translation

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8- Sahih Bukhari, Kitab ur Riqaq, Chapter on Haud. Online link

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9- Sahih Muslim, Book of Faith. Online link for the English translation of the chapter

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10- Same as (9). This narration is also narrated by Ibn Umar in the same chapter of Sahih Muslim. Also, this narration is also present in Sahih al Bukhari, Book of Hajj, and there it is narrated by Ibn Abbass. Here is the online link for the book

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And the wordings translated by the English translators are:-

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It is incumbent upon those who are present to convey this information to those who are absent Beware don’t renegade (as) disbelievers (turn into infidels) after me, Striking the necks (cutting the throats) of one another.’

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11- I have given Scans from Sahih Muslim, translated by Allama Wahid uz Zaman, published in Pakistan by Khalid Ihsaan Publishers, in August, 2004, where in they have done this tehreef/temperation

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See this link

https://ahlubait.wordpress.com/2012/12/24/tehreef-in-urdu-version-of-sahih-muslim-2/

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