Generally it is presumed that when a Sahabi narrates then it would mean that he is narrating from Holy Prophet asws.

Let us see a narration from Mustadrak, Imam Hakim, 2/535

3822 – أَخْبَرَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يَعْقُوبَ الثَّقَفِيُّ، ثنا عُبَيْدُ بْنُ غَنَّامٍ النَّخَعِيُّ، أَنْبَأَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ حَكِيمٍ، ثنا شَرِيكٌ، عَنْ عَطَاءِ بْنِ السَّائِبِ، عَنْ أَبِي الضُّحَى، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، أَنَّهُ قَالَ: {اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ} [الطلاق: 12] قَالَ: سَبْعَ أَرَضِينَ فِي كُلِّ أَرْضٍ نَبِيٌّ كَنَبِيِّكُمْ وَآدَمُ كآدمَ، وَنُوحٌ كَنُوحٍ، وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ كَإِبْرَاهِيمَ، وَعِيسَى كَعِيسَى «هَذَا حَدِيثٌ صَحِيحُ الْإِسْنَادِ وَلَمْ يُخَرِّجَاهُ»

[التعليق – من تلخيص الذهبي] 3822 – صحيح

Ibn Abbas narrates in explanation of 12th verse of Surah Talaq that there are 7 Earths, and there is a Prophet in each of them like Your Prophet, and Adam like your Adam, and Noah like Your Noah, and Ibrahim like Your Ibrahim, and Jesus like Your Jesus.

Hakim says Narration has authentic chain though it was not noted down (in Bukhari or Muslim)

Dhabi says it is Authentic

Behqi also noted this narration in His book, al-Asma wa al-Sifaat, 2/267. Also he mentioned a similar narration on the next page

832 – وَأَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَافِظُ، أنا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ الْقَاضِي، ثنا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ، ثنا آدَمُ بْنُ أَبِي إِيَاسَ، ثنا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُرَّةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الضُّحَى، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا فِي قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: {اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الْأَرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ} [الطلاق: 12] قَالَ: فِي كُلِّ أَرْضٍ نَحْوَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ. إِسْنَادُ هَذَا عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا صَحِيحٌ، وَهُوَ شَاذُّ بِمُرَّةَ، لَا أَعْلَمُ لِأَبِي الضُّحَى عَلَيْهِ مُتَابِعًا وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

That is, Ibn Abbas says that in each Earth there is like Ibrahim

(Behqi says) This chain is Authentic till Ibn Abbas, but it is Shadh/unique due to Morrah, it is not known if any one followed him from Abu Dhoha.

This narration is also present in Tafsir Tibri, 23/469. There is another narration present there as well.

حدثنا عمرو بن عليّ، قال: ثنا وكيع، قال: ثنا الأعمش، عن إبراهيم بن مهاجر، عن مجاهد، عن ابن عباس، في قوله: (اللَّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ وَمِنَ الأرْضِ مِثْلَهُنَّ) قال: لو حدثتكم بتفسيرها لكفرتم وكفركم تكذيبكم بها.

Ibn Abbas mentioned in Tafsir/explanation of this verse: If I narrated to you about Tafsir of this verse, You will do kufr, and kufr is that you will negate it

Ibn Kathir writes in al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, 1/21 (printed Dar-ul-Fikr)

 وَهَكَذَا مَا يَذْكُرُهُ كَثِيرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَلَقَّاهُ عَنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ عُلَمَائِنَا مِنْ أَنَّ هَذِهِ الْأَرْضَ مِنْ تُرَابٍ وَالَّتِي تَحْتَهَا مِنْ حَدِيدٍ وَالْأُخْرَى مِنْ حِجَارَةٍ مِنْ كِبْرِيتٍ وَالْأُخْرَى مِنْ كَذَا فَكُلُّ هَذَا إِذَا لَمْ يُخْبَرْ بِهِ وَيَصِحَّ سَنَدُهُ إِلَى مَعْصُومٍ فَهُوَ مَرْدُودٌ عَلَى قَائِلِهِ. وَهَكَذَا الْأَثَرُ الْمَرْوِيُّ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ أَنَّهُ قَالَ فِي كُلِّ أَرْضٍ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ مِثْلُ مَا فِي هذه حَتَّى آدَمَ كَآدَمِكُمْ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ كَإِبْرَاهِيمِكُمْ فَهَذَا ذَكَرَهُ ابْنُ جَرِيرٍ مُخْتَصَرًا وَاسْتَقْصَاهُ الْبَيْهَقِيُّ فِي الْأَسْمَاءِ وَالصِّفَاتِ وَهُوَ مَحْمُولٌ إِنْ صَحَّ نَقْلُهُ عَنْهُ على أنه أخذه ابن عباس رضى الله عنه عَنِ الْإِسْرَائِيلِيَّاتِ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ

It is like what has been mentioned by a lot of Ahlul Kitab, and a group of our scholars got it from them, that this earth has a layer of soil, then there is layer of iron, then there are stones etc. When this has not bee told by, and the chain is  not authentic till infallible, then it is a rejected narration. Similar is the narration mentioned by Ibn Abbas that in every Earth which is created like this, there is Adam like your Adam, Ibrahim like your Ibrahim; Ibn Jurair mentioned it in short form, and Behqi mentioned it in al-Isma wa al-Sifaat, and if it is authentic, then we would apply it on that ibn Abbas took it from Israeliat.

If you refer to Urdu translation of al-Bidaya, published by Nafees Academy, they have tempered a lot with this narration.

This is not the only case where a Sahabi has been charged by Scholars of Ahlu Sunnah for taking and narrating from Israeliyat.

We also find Dr Bastawi writing in his book, al-Mahdi al-Montazir fi Do al-Ahadeeth wa al-Athar wa Aqwal al-ulama wa Ara al-Firaq Mukhtalifah, page 218-219

اسنادہ حسن الی عبداللہ ابن عمرو رضی اللہ عنھما و لکنہ رضی اللہ عنہ کان ینظر فی کتب اہل کتاب و یروی عنھم۔ فقد یکون الخبر من الاسرائیلیات۔ و اللہ اعلم

Its chain is ḥasan up to Abd Allah bin Amro. However, he used to look into the books of the Ahl al-Kitab and narrated from them. So, it is possible that the report is from the Israeliyat. And Allah knows best

So he clearly points to a Sahabi narrating from Israeliyat

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