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this brief piece of aritcle is written to give an over view of the fact that one has to wipe just a part of scalp in ablution

we know that in quran, we find that allah said in surat ul maidah

and then we find

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ مِنْهُ ۚ

now, if you see sunnis, they wash the full face in ablution, and then they do the full masah of face in tayammam,

so it is logical to ask sunnis,

what is then this BI for? what is the advantage of this bi? or is it useless? if you say, it is for ilhaq, then why it is not there in the verse of ablution? why it was not needed over there?

so this BI must have some role………

let us see the verse of ablution, we find there

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ

now, in this verse, we find that allah ordered us to do masah of head, and the wordings there are

وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ

now, as per traditions of shia, this BI is for tabeez, that is, it means you do masah of part of head. and since it extends forward, that is, since we find masah and then tabeez, this tabeez is also attached with the feet. like if we translate it, it would be like

وَامْسَحُوا= and do masah

بِرُءُوسِكُمْ= PART OF your head

وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ = and your feet till ankles

that is, “and do masah of part of your head and your feet till ankles”

this is what has been given to us from the aimmah of ahlubait,whose greatness was accepted by even dhabi

but what do sunnis say about BI for tabeez,

there is a difference of opinion in this regard, like hanafis do masah of part of head.[the question does arise as to why then they do full face masah? this may be explained by hanafis]

let us see tafsir ibn kather, vol 2, urdu, published by maktaba qudusia, lahore, page is 33

so he accepted that there is a difference of opinion, though he gave preference to the fact that it is for ilhaq, however, he accepted that there is chance of tabeez.

but please, keep in mind that could not prove it from the verse, rather he said that there is ijmal [briefness] in the verse, and therefore, we would take it from hadeeth; thus, he proved full head masah from ahadeeth, and not from quran.this is proven from the first line of scan 2.

then he gave example of those who say that just masah of part of head is what is required .

let us see sunni ahadeeth in this regard. and the views of their scholars

we find the hadeeth in abi daood

147 – حدثنا أحمد بن صالح، حدثنا ابن وهب، حدثني معاوية بن صالح، عن عبد العزيز بن مسلم، عن أبي معقل، عن أنس بن مالك، قال رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يتوضأ وعليه عمامة قطرية فأدخل يده من تحت العمامة فمسح مقدم رأسه ولم ينقض العمامة ‏.‏…BID=7&CID=2#s58

and while explaining this hadeeth, imam shokani said in neel-ul-otar that this stands for part of head

we find

قوله‏:‏ ‏(‏فمسح مقدم الرأس‏)‏ قال ابن حجر‏:‏ فيه دليل على الاجتزاء بالمسح على الناصية وقد نقل عن سلمة بن الأكوع أنه كان يمسح مقدم رأسه وابن عمر مسح اليافوخ‏.‏…D=253&CID=16#s2

regarding masah of feet, you can read my article

we find in surat-ul-maidah, verse 6

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرَافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ

let us see, different translations

yousaf ali says
O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles.

pickthal says
O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles.

mohsin khan says
O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salât (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles.

shakir says
O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles;

so interestingly, except for shakir who has translated it correctly, rest all have to include a bracket to have their meanings conveyed.

let us see as to what is the correct interpretation of this verse.

first of all, let us consult imam razi, who speaks on this verse.

we find in tafsir al kabir, razi that he said

اختلف الناس في مسح الرجلين وفي غسلهما، فنقل الفقال في تفسيره عن
ابن عباس وأنس بن مالك وعكرمة والشعبي وأبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر: أن الواجب فيهما المسح، وهو مذهب الإمامية من الشيعة

“there is difference between people in regards to masah/wiping and washing of feet; as per tafsir of ibn abbas and anas bin malik and akrama and alshaabi and abu jafar mohammad bin ali al-baqyr: it is wajib to do masah and this is the mazhab/faith of imami shia”

then he further writes regarding the differences and says

وقال الحسن البصري ومحمد بن جرير الطبري: المكلف مخير بين المسح والغسل.

“and hasan basri and mohammad bin jurair tibri said that person has option between masah and ghusl”
then he comments on the typical nasibi approach who say that we do washing because there is kasra in beraosEKom
and he says

هذا باطل من وجوه

“this is wrong because of many reasons”.

and he gives the reason that the kasra there is because of BA
he says

أن الكسر بالجوار إنما يكون بدون حرف العطف، وأما مع حرف العطف فلم تتكلم به العرب، وأما القراءة بالنصب فقالوا أيضاً: إنها توجب المسح،

“no doubt the jar/kasr of jawar, no doubt it apart form haraf-ul-ataf; and does not come along with haraf-e-ataf in speech of arab; and as regards to qirat with NASB; they say it also makes masah wajib”

he further writes

وذلك لأن قوله { وَٱمْسَحُواْ بِرُؤُوسِكُمْ } فرؤوسكم في النصب ولكنها مجرورة بالباء،

“and regarding “do masah on head” RAOSAKOM is in NASAB, but is in state of JUR because of of BA”

Now, his guilt was giving him trouble; he had accepted that as per quran, it is masah; and not wash; so he tries to defend and says

واعلم أنه لا يمكن الجواب عن هذا إلا من وجهين

“i know that no doubt, it is not possible to reply this; except for two reason”

and see what are his reasons:-

الأول: أن الأخبار الكثيرة وردت بإيجاب الغسل،

“first, there are numerous narrations which speak of washing being must”

والثاني: أن فرض الرجلين محدود إلى الكعبين، والتحديد إنما جاء في الغسل لا في المسح،

“and second, feet have been limited till ankles; and limitation is only in regards to washing and not in regards to masah”

now, if there is any one who has pure heart, and who is not at all a follower of his personal desires,
he can easily find out that he is speaking baselessly
first, how can one accept hadeeth , no matter what their number is, which are contradicting quran? was prophet allowed to change shariat?
second, from where did he get this idea that the things which are “limited” are to be washed?
that is to say, do we see any limitation for face in this ayat?
not at all. allah just said “wash your face”, he did not mention “how much of the face”
now, just because we see that arms have been limited, does not mean that you do qayas and make this rule for feet.
razi should rather start wiping of his face.

al khazin accepts that there is difference in opinion and states in his tafsir تفسير لباب التأويل في معاني التنزيل/ الخازن

قوله تعالى: { وأرجلكم إلى الكعبين } اختلف العلماء في هذا الحكم. وهل فرض الرجلين المسح أو الغسل؟ فروي عن ابن عباس أنه قال: الوضوء غسلتان ومسحتان. ويروى ذلك عن قتادة أيضاً. ويروى عن أنس أنه قال: نزل القرآن بالمسح والسنة بالغسل. وعن عكرمة قال: ليس في الرجلين إنما نزل فيهما المسح. وعن الشعبي أنه قال: إنما هو المسح عن الرجلين. ألا ترى إن ما كان عليه الغسل جعل عليه التيمم وما كان عليه المسح أهمل. ومذهب الإمامية من الشيعة: أن الواجب في الرجلين المسح.

“there is difference between scholars regarding this order. if there is masah or wash? ibn abbas said taht wudu has two washs and two wipes; and same was said by qatada; and said anas that quran revealed masah and sunnat told us wash; and akrama said no doubt masah was revealed for feet; and sha’abi said that no doubt there is masah in feet, do you not see that there is masah in tayammam for what there is ghusl in wudu; and this is the mazhab of shia imamia; that masah is wajib in feet.

he also accepted that

وقال الحسن البصري ومحمد بن جرير الطبري: المكلف مخير بين الغسل والمسح.

so, he also mentions some of the great names of sunni sect who accepted the shia point of view.

now, the mainstay of sunni sect is that the qirat of this verse makes ghusl wajib; though we have already mentioned that razi did not accept that; however
i would also like to remind that there has been a differnce in qirat in this verse; for example we see in tafsir tibri that he also accepted that there is difference in the qirat of this verse

اختلفت القرّاء فـي قراءة ذلك، فقرأه جماعة من قرّاء الـحجاز والعراق: { وأرْجُلَكُمْ إلـى الكَعْبَـيْنِ } نصبـاً.

“there is difference in qirat of this amongst qaris; one of the parties of hijaz and iraq recite it with NASB”

then he mentions those great names who have recited it with KASRA
[that is, they recited the word arjoLEkom, and not arjoLAkom]

حدثنا ابن حميد وابن وكيع، قالا: ثنا جرير، عن الأعمش، عن يحيى بن

وثاب، عن علقمة أنه قرأ: «وأرْجُلِكُمْ» مخفوضة اللام.

حدثنا ابن حميد وابن وكيع، قالا: ثنا جرير، عن الأعمش، مثله.

حدثنا ابن وكيع، قال: ثنا أبو الـحسن العكلـي، عن عبد الوارث، عن

حميد، عن مـجاهد أنه كان يقرأ: «وأرْجُلِكُمْ».

حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا جابر بن نوح، قال: ثنا إسماعيـل بن أبـي خالد،

قال: كان الشعبـيّ يقرأ: «وأرْجُلِكُمْ» بـالـخفض.

حدثنا ابن وكيع، قال: ثنا أبـي، عن الـحسن بن صالـح، عن غالب، عن

أبـي جعفر، أنه قرأ: «وأرْجُلِكُمْ» بـالـخفض.

حدثنا ابن وكيع، قال: ثنا أبـي، عن سلـمة، عن الضحاك، أنه قرأ:

«وأرْجُلِكُمْ» بـالكسر

let us pay attention to what has been delivered to us from holy prophet asws.
we find

أبي الأسود عن عباد بن تميم المازني عن أبيه قال رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يتوضأ ويمسح الماء على رجليه رجاله ثقات

Abu al-Aswad – Ibad ibn Tamim – Tamim ibn Zayd:

I saw the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) when he performed ablution, and he used to wipe his feet.

All its narrators are thiqah.

tibri in his tafsir writes

حدثنا أبو كريب، قال: ثنا مـحمد بن قـيس الـخراسانـي، عن ابن جريج، عن عمرو بن دينار، عن عكرمة، عن ابن عبـاس، قال: الوضوء غسلتان ومسحتان.
“ibn abbass said that wudu has two ghusls and two masahs”

حدثنا ابن بشار، قال: ثنا ابن أبـي عديّ، عن حميد، عن موسى بن أنس، قال: خطب الـحجاج، فقال: «اغسلوا وجوهكم وأيديكم وأرجُلَكم، ظهورَهما وبطونَهما وعراقـيبهما، فإن ذلك أدنى إلـى خبثكم». قال أنس: صدق الله وكذب الـحجاج، قال الله: «وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ وأرْجُلِكُمْ إلـى الكَعْبَـيْنِ».

mosa bin anas said that hajjaj gave the speech that
“wash your face and hands and feet; so wash it from the upper side, and below, and from ankles; this is because dirt gets there”
anas said “allah said the truth and hajjat lied; allah says do masah of your head and feet till ankles”

حدثنـي يعقوب، قال: ثنا ابن علـية، قال: ثنا عبـد الله العتكي، عن عكرمة، قال: لـيس علـى الرجلـين غسل، إنـما نزل فـيهما الـمسح.

akrama said that there is not ghusl for feet; no doubt masah is revealed for this.

حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا هارون، عن عنبسة، عن جابر، عن أبـي جعفر، قال: امسح علـى رأسك وقدميك.

imam abu jafar said that there is masah of head and feet

حدثنـي أبو السائب، قال: ثنا ابن إدريس، عن داود بن أبـي هند، عن الشعبـيّ، قال: نزل جبريـل بـالـمسح. قال: ثم قال الشعبـي: ألا ترى أن التـيـمـم أن يـمسح ما كان غسلاً ويـلغي ما كان مسحاً؟
sha’abi said that jibrail came with order of masah; then he said  “do you not see that those parts which are are done masah in tayammat, are the ones which are washed  (in wudu), and not the ones which are done masah (in wudu)”

similarly, he said

حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا جرير، عن مغيرة، عن الشعبـيّ، قال: أُمر بـالتـيـمـم فـيـما أُمر به بـالغسل.

“order of tayammam is in that for which there is order of ghusl”
and he gives the result of all his discussion as

والصواب من القول عندنا فـي ذلك، أن الله أمر بعموم مسح الرجلـين بـالـماء فـي الوضوء،
so the correct saying in this regard is that, allah in general gave the order of masah of feet with water in wudu.
interestingly, we find in

[ مصنف ابن أبي شيبة ]
الكتاب : المصنف في الأحاديث والآثار
المؤلف : أبو بكر عبد الله بن محمد بن أبي شيبة الكوفي
that there is a chapter

( ( 16 ) في المسح على القدمين )

and in this, we find

178 – حدثنا بن علية عن أيوب قال رأيت عكرمة يمسح على رجليه وكان يقول به

179 – حدثنا بن علية عن يونس عن الحسن أنه كان يقول إنما هو المسح على القدمين وكان يقول يمسح ظاهرهما وباطنهما

180 – حدثنا بن عيينة عن عمرو بن دينار عن عكرمة قال غسلتان ومسحتان

181 – حدثنا بن علية عن داود عن الشعبي قال إنما هو المسح على القدمين ألا ترى أن ما كان عليه الغسل جعل عليه التيمم وما كان عليه المسح أهمل فلم يجعل عليه التيمم

182 – حدثنا إسماعيل بن علية عن حميد قال كان أنس إذا مسح على قدميه بلهما

183 – حدثنا وكيع عن الأعمش عن أبي إسحاق عن عبد خير عن علي قال لو كان الدين برأي كان باطن القدمين أحق بالمسح على ظاهرهما ولكن رأيت رسول الله ص [ ص 26 ] مسح ظاهرهما

184 – حدثنا بن علية عن مالك بن مغول عن زبيد اليامي عن الشعبي قال نزل جبريل بالمسح على القدمين

185 – حدثنا وكيع عن إسماعيل عن الشعبي قال نزل جبريل بالمسح

so he has given eight different chains proving masah in feet

before i end; i would like to share some scans with my friends

these scans are from tafsir dur-e-manthur, vol 2, page 718

let us see a better look

also, this is scan from page 719

let us see a better look, highlighting the main ahadeeth

this is from tafsir ibn katheer, vol 2, page 35:-

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