You are currently browsing the tag archive for the ‘salat’ tag.

{research of syed hasni, his work can be seen here}

let me translate for you what is in urdu on the said site

حسن نے کہا کہ رسول اللہ (ص) نے فرمایا: گویا کہ میں بنی اسرائیل کے علماء کو دیکھ

رہا ہوں کہ وہ نماز میں اپنے داہنے ہاتھ بائیں ہاتھ پر رکھے ہوئے ہیں

(مصنف ابن شیبہ ، ج 3،ص 319)

Read the rest of this entry »

Qabd or Sadl

Right over Left or Hands at the Sides?

One of the most interesting differences which we see today is the way muslims offer their prayer.

Especially, in countries like Pakistan where sunni majority is following abu hanifa; they think that qabd-ul-yadain is the sunnah. And they criticize shia sect for doing a bidah, or even “not offering correct prayers”

What they are not aware of is, that even imam malik used to offer prayers with sadl, that is, hanging of hands along side. Rather, there is explicit statement of Malik that he disliked for a person to prayer any of the 5 compulsory prayers while folding one arm or hand over the other.

What he said is quoted in Al-Mudawwana Al-Kubra. 1/111;

Ibn ul qasim, who was the most famous student of imam malik in this book says:-

“malik said about placing the right hand over the left during salat. He said “I do not know of that in the obligatory (prayer).” And he used to dislike it. “However, in voluntary prayers (nawafil) when the standing in extended, there is no harm in that (for one who does not) support himself by it”

Furthermore, it has also been revealed that Imam Malik was not alone in this position. Rather, the most knowledgeable and noteworthy of the Tabi’un also preferred this manner of prayer as has been shown by the reports of Ibn Abu Shayba.

Ibn Abu Shayba reports hadiths that show that the following personages prayed while draping their hands at their sides:

  • Sa’id ibn Al-Musayyib,
  • Sa’id ibn Jubayr,
  • Al-Hasan Al-Basari,
  • Ibrahim Al-Nakha’i,
  • Muhammad ibn Sirin,
  • and the Companion, ‘Abd Allah ibn Al-Zubayr.

[Ibn Abu Shayba, Abu Bakr. Musannaf]

Now, what we find interesting is the fact that holy prophet offered prayers atleast 5 times a day, that is to say we are ignoring others prayers, and even if we just take the 13 years he spent in madina, just imagine the number of his prayers. But when we see the sunni books, we are surprised by the fact that there are very few, just 18 companions and 2 successors, who narrated such narrations which speak of qabd.

And even more interestingly, bukhari just trusted one narration in his sahih, and did not include any other narration.

(remember, I used the word narration and not hadeeth, since hadeeth  is defined as what prophet said, or did, or someone did it in front of him but he did not stop him)

Question would & should come to ones mind as to what was the reason bukhari did not take those ahadeeth in his sahih. Did he consider them daif?

Below is a critique of each individual report and an exposition of their weaknesses in either the chain or meaning. I have mainly used the work of Abdullah bin hamid ali. And he wrote

“These critiques have been summarized from the work of Shaykh Mukhtar Al-Dawdi, one of the great contemporary Mauritanian scholars of the Shinqit, Mashru’iyyat al-Sadl fi Al-Salat [The Legitimacy of Draping the Arms in Salat].”

WEAKNESS OF THE AHADEETH WHICH SPEAK OF QABD-UL-YADAIN:-

Hadith #1: The hadith of Sahl

Reported in Al-Muwatta and Sahih al-Bukhari

“’Abdullah ibn Maslama related to us from Malik from Abu Hazim from Sahl ibn Sa’d. He said:

“The people were ordered that a person is to place the right hand over his left forearm during Salat.” Abu Hazim said: “I know only that he attributes that (yanmi dhalika) to the Prophet _.” Isma’il said: “(I know only that) That is attributed (yunma dhalika).” And he didn’t say: “He attributes” (yanmi).”

Some of the names mentioned in this are:-

*Abu ‘Abd Al-Rahman ‘Abdullah ibn Maslama ibn Qa’nab Al-Harithi Al-Madani Al-Basari, a reliable narrator (thiqa) and a devout worshipper (‘abid). Ibn Ma’in and Ibn Al-Madini placed no one over him with regard to the Muwatta. He passed away in Mecca in the year 220 A.H. or 221 A.H. [Tahdhib al-Tahdhib: 6/31] and [Siyar ‘alam An-Nubala: 1/257].

*Abu Hazim is Salama ibn Dinar, the shaykh of Medinah, and patron of Banu Makhzum. He was a cripple date-merchant, and an ascetic magistrate. He died in the year 140 A.H. [Siyar ‘alam al-

Nubala: 6/96] [Tahdhib al-Tahdhib: 4/143].

*Isma’il is ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Uways ibn Malik. He was a veracious Imam and hadith master, and one of the scholars of Medinah. He was the leading hadith specialist of his time. He

died in the year 226 A.H. or 227 A.H. [Siyar ‘alam al-Nubala: 10/392].

The Weaknesses of the Hadith

This hadith – in spite of being in both the Muwatta and the Sahih of Bukhari, isn’t definitive proof that the Prophet’s sunnah was to pray while holding his left hand with his right hand. What weakens such an assumption made from this hadith are the following:

Weakness #1:

This is not an explicit report of a statement or action of the Prophet.

Weakness #2:

The saying that, “The people were ordered that a person is to place the right handover his left forearm during Salat” is the statement of the Companion, Sahl. And he doesn’t say that the Prophet _ gave this order. So there is the possibility that another could have given this order.

Weakness #3:

The saying, “I know only that he attributes that (yanmi dhalika) to the Prophet” is not the statement of Sahl. Rather it is the statement of the Tabi’i, Abu Hazim. So there is no certainty that Sahl actually attributed this to the Prophet , since Abu Hazim is merely conjecturing about what he remembers.

Weakness #4:

The statement of Isma’il that, “(I know only that) That is attributed (yunma dhalika).”

And he didn’t say: “He attributes” (yanmi)” further emphasizes the belief that Abu Hazim didn’t actually hear Sahl attribute the order to the Prophet

Hadith #2: The Hadith of Wa’il

Reported in Sahih Muslim

Muslim said as is in Sahih Muslim [4/114]:

“Zuhayr ibn Harb related to us, ‘Affan related to us, Hamam related to us, Muhammad ibn Juhada related to us, ‘Abd Al-Jabbar ibn Wa’il related to me, from ‘Alqama ibn Wa’il and a client of theirs that they both related to him from his father, Wa’il ibn Hujr that he saw the Prophet _ – raise his hands when he entered Salat. He said the takbir, he wrapped himself in his garment, and then placed his right hand on the left…[to the end of the hadith].”

The Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

The narrator, Muhammad ibn Juhada, is weak. Nawwawi alluded to it by his saying,

“In it is Muhammad ibn Juhada.”

And Ibn Hajar said in the introduction to Al-Fath [p. 361]:

“Muhammad ibn Juhada Al-Kufi was accused of being a Shiite [biased toward ‘Ali and against Mu’awiya].”

Then Ibn Hajar said after declaring Ibn Juhada as being one of the weak narrators,

“Verily one of the conditions of (a hadith being) Sahih is that the transmitter be sound in creed.”

And in Mizan al-‘Itidal of Imam Dhahabi [4/418] he said that Abu ‘Awana Al- Waddah said about him:

“He was extreme in his Shiism (kana yaghlu fi tashayyu’ihi).”

Interestingly, dhahabi also said in the same book

“Muhammad ibn Juhada is one of the reliable and trustworthy Tabi’in, He met Anas _. The only thing is that Abu ‘Awana Al-Waddah said, “He was extreme in his shiism.” But, I [Dhahabi] say

(that) not a single revilement (of the Companions) has been recorded about the man. So where is the extremism?!”

[Mizan ,4/418, #7305]

Weakness #2:

There is a second break in the chain, since ‘Alqama ibn Wa’il never met his father, Wa’il, on whose authority he is supposedly speaking.

Dhahabi in Al-Mizan [4/28] and Ibn Hajar in Taqrib al-Tahdhib [2/31] limited themselves to mentioning that

“‘Alqama is Saduq (veracious), except that he never heard any reports from his father, Wa’il.”

And the reviser (muhaqqiq) of Al-Mizan placed a number next to him and said:

“In the Thiqat of Ibn Hibban: (He said) His father died while he was in his mother’s womb.”

And in Siyar ‘Alam Al-Nubala of Dhahabi he mentions that Tirmidhi said in Al-‘Ilal Al-Kubra:

“I asked Bukhari: “Did ‘Alqama hear anything from his father, Wa’il?” He said: “Verily ‘Alqama was born after the death of his father by 6 months.””

And Nawwawi said in Tahdhib al-Asma [1/343]:

“Verily the reports of ‘Alqama from his father, Wa’il, are through an undisclosed intermediary (mursala).”

Weakness #3:

The client mentioned alongside ‘Alqama is unknown and unidentified. So this counts as another break in the chain according to hadith scholars. For example, we find Shaykh Mukhtar Al-Dawdi saying,

“If it is said: “Tirmidhi said along with (the commentary of) Al-‘Arida [6/237] as well as Bukhari in Al-Tarikh Al-Kabir [4/14]:

“Verily ‘Alqama heard from his father”, the response is that it has already been mentioned from the two of them that he was born 6 months after his father’s death. And this is more definitive than them saying:

“He heard from his father, Wa’il.”

For this reason, hadith masters (huffaz) didn’t consider this to be a confirmed hearing (sama’) as has already been stated, and because Yahya ibn Ma’in is one of those who said that

“…the reports of ‘Alqama from his father, Wa’il are through an undisclosed intermediary (mursala).”

This is because Ibn Ma’in was the most knowledgeable of all the Imams of his era with relation to hadith transmitters. In Tadhkirat al-Huffaz of Imam Dhahabi [2/430] he states:

“Ibn Ma’in said: “The knowledge of all people stopped at Yahya ibn Ma’in.” And Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “Yahya ibn Ma’in is the most knowledgeable of us of hadith transmitters.””

Weakness #4:

Wa’il was from the city of Hadramaut (Yemen). He came to the Prophet _ when he was in Madinah, accepted Islam, and returned shortly after to his city. And due to him not taking up residence in Medinah, Ibrahim Al-Nakha’i rejected his hadiths related to the description of the Prophet’s prayer _, as is found in Shafi’i’s Umm [1/105] under: ‘Those who oppose the raising of the hands.”

What this means is that Wa’il wasn’t the greatest authority on the Prophet’s prayer, since he spent almost no time in his presence after accepting Islam at his hands.

Shaykh Al-Dawdi says,

“And in the introduction to Nawwawi’s Sharh Muslim [1/27] he said:

“And a group (of scholars) criticized them – i.e. Bukhari and Muslim – about certain hadiths wherein they violated the conditions they stipulated for acceptance, and have descended below the grade of those (hadiths) they obliged themselves to (report).”

That is, they have descended below the grade of sahih (sound). And on page 16, (he says):

“So Muslim’s book contains hadiths whose chains or texts they have differed with regard to whether or not they are sahih in his view. And in that is a careless departure from this stipulation.”

And it is known (to scholars) that the stipulation of Bukhari and Muslim is (for the report to have) ‘…a chain that is connected by way of a trustworthy transmitter from another trustworthy transmitter to the Prophet _ with no subtle weakness (‘illa) or irregularity (shudhudh)’ despite of this being the definition of ‘sahih’ in the view of the overwhelming majority of the Imams. And you know that this condition is lacking in the aforementioned

hadiths of Sahl and Wa’il. So on that basis, presenting them as proof is invalid.”

Weakness #5:

The hadith never states how Wa’il’s son or their client obtained information about what their father supposedly saw. For instance, the chain reads,

“…‘Abd Al-Jabbar ibn Wa’il related to me, from ‘Alqama ibn Wa’il and a client of theirs that they both related to him from his father, Wa’il ibn Hujr that he saw the Prophet  – raise his hands when he entered Salat…”

‘Alqama could have said, “I heard my father say…”, “My father told me…” or “My father related to me that…” But no such expression is used in this hadith that would indicate that there was definitely a meeting between ‘Alqama and his father, Wa’il.

Hadith #3: The Hadith of Ibn Mas’ud

Reported in the Sunan of Abu Dawud and the Sunan of Nasa’i

It is related that ‘Abd Allah Ibn Mas’ud _ said:

“The Prophet _ saw me placing my left hand on my right hand in Salat. So he took my right hand, and then placed it over my left hand.”

Abu Dawud’s chain is:

Muhammad ibn Bakkar – from – Hushaym ibn Bashir – from – Al-Hajjaj ibn Abu Zaynab – from – Abu Abi ‘Uthman – from – Ibn Mas’ud.

Nasa’i’s chain is:

Hushaym ibn Bashir – from – Al-Hajjaj ibn Abu Zaynab – from – Abu Abi ‘Uthman – from – Ibn Mas’ud.

The Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

Muhammad ibn Bakkar is unknown. Dhahabi stated it in Al-Mizan [4/412].

Weakness #2:

Weakness has been ascribed to Hushaym ibn Bashir. Dhahabi states in Al-Mizan [5/431], and Ibn Hajar states in Taqrib al-Tahdhib [2/269] that he:

“Often used trickery in his reports to convince others to accept unacceptable chains of narration in addition to being guilty of conveying subtly distinguishable incomplete chains of narration (kathir at-tadlis wa al-irsal alkhafi).”

Weakness #3:

Al-Hajjaj ibn Abu Zaynab has been declared to be weak by ‘Ali ibn Al-Madini, Nasa’i, Ahmad, and Daraqutni as stated by Dhahabi in Al-Mizan [1/462].

Hadith #4: The Hadith of Hulb Al-Ta’i

Reported by Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and Daraqutni

It has been related that Hulb Al-Ta’i said:

“The Prophet _ used to lead us. And he would take his left hand with his right.”

This hadith is reported by way of Sammak ibn Harb – from – Qabisa ibn Hulb – from –his father, Hulb.

Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

Qabisa ibn Hulb has been classified as weak and unknown.

Shawkani said in Nayl al-Awtar [2/200]:

“In the chain of this hadith is Qabisa ibn Hulb. Sammak is the only one to narrate from him. Al-‘Ijli considered him to be reliable. And Ibn Al-Madini and Nasa’i said: “(He is) Unknown.””

Weakness #2:

Sammak ibn Harb has been classified as weak. Dhahabi said about him in Al-Mizan [2/422 & 423]:

“Sufyan, Shu’ba, and others declared him to be weak.

And Ahmad said:

“(He is) Unstable (mudtarib) in hadith.”

And Nasa’i said:

“He used to be dictated to. And he would learn (from those dictated notes).””

So there is a weak transmitter on the authority of one who is unknown in the chain. So no attention is to be shown to it.

Hadith #5: The Hadith of ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib

Reported by Abu Dawud

It has been related that ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib said:

“It is from the Sunnah to place the right hand on the left hand during Salat under the navel.”

This has been related by way of ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Ishaq Al-Wasiti.

Weaknesses of the Hadith

‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Ishaq has been classified as weak. Dhahabi said of him in Al-Mizan [3/262]:

“Ahmad said: “He is insignificant. (He is) Rejected in hadith.””

Nawwawi said in Sharh Muslim [4/115]:

“(He is) Weak by the agreement (of hadith scholars).”

Hadith #6: The Hadith of Abu Hurayra

Reported by Abu Dawud

It has been related that Abu Hurayra said:

“The taking of the palms over the palms is under the navel.”

This has been related by way of ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Ishaq also.

Weakness of the Hadith

Abu Dawud related it by way of ‘Abd Al-Rahman ibn Ishaq upon whom there is agreement about him being declared weak, rejected, and insignificant, as has been stated.

Hadith #7: The Hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abbas

Reported by Daraqutni

In Awjaz al-Masalik ‘ala Muwatta Malik [3/169] (it states):

“And Daraqutni reported from the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas raised to the

Prophet [marfu’an] (that he said):

“Verily we – assembly of Prophets – have been ordered to hold our right hands over our left hands.””

Weaknesses of the Hadith

One of the transmitters, Talha ibn ‘Amr, has been classified as being an unreliable narrator. The author of Awjaz al-Masalik says,

“And in its chain is Talha ibn ‘Amr who is relinquished (matruk).

Likewise it is mentioned in Al-‘Ayni (Sharh of) Al-Bukhari.”

Dhahabi said in Al-Mizan [3/54]:

“Ahmad and Nasa’i said (about Talha): “(He is) relinquished in hadith. And Bukhari and Ibn Al-Madini said: “He is insignificant” (Laysa bi shayin).””

Hadith #8: The Hadith of Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah

Reported by Ahmad and Daraqutni

It has also been related that Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah ascribed the act of placing the right hand over the left in Salat to the Prophet too. It states that Jabir said,

“The Messenger of Allah _ passed by a man who was praying while placing his left hand on the right hand. So he snatched it and placed the right on the left.”

But, this is reported by way of Al-Hajjaj ibn Abu Zaynab – from – Abu Sufyan – from – Jabir ibn ‘Abd Allah.

Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

Al-Hajjaj ibn Abu Zaynab has already been discussed. And it has already been revealed that Al-Hajjaj is weak.

Weakness #2:

Abu Sufyan Talha ibn ‘Amr is also classified as weak. Dhahabi said of him in Al-Mizan [3/56]:

“Shu’ba and Ibn ‘Uyayna said: “His hadiths from Jabir are no more than a written collection (sahifa) [i.e. so, he didn’t actually hear from Jabir].” And Ibn Ma’in was asked about him and he said: “[He is] Nothing.””

Hadith #9: The Hadith of ‘Aisha bint Abu Bakr

Reported by Daraqutni and Bayhaqi

It has been related that ‘Aisha  said:

“Three things are from prophecy: Making haste to break fast, delaying the predawn meal, and placing the right over the left during Salat.”

Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

This report is not ascribable to the Prophet _. Rather, it is only ascribable to his wife, ‘Aisha.

Ibn Hazm related it in Al-Muhalla [4/113] as a statement of ‘Aisha but without a chain.

Weakness #2:

There is a break in the chain. So it even cannot be ascribed to ‘Aisha.

Hafiz ibn Hajar said in Talkhis al-Habir [1/223]:

“Daraqutni and Bayhaqi related it as a statement of ‘Aisha . And it has a break in its chain.”

Hadith #10: The Hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Umar

Reported by Al-‘Aqili

It has been related also that Ibn ‘Umar  reported that the Prophet _ used to pray while holding his left hand with his right hand.

Weakness of the Hadith

This reported in spite of being related by Al-‘Aqili was declared to be weak. Imam Shawkani made mention of this in Nayl al-Awtar [2/200].

Al-‘Aqili’s name is Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn Musa ibn Hammad Al-‘Aqili. He was one of the hadith masters of Mecca.

Shaykh Al-Dawdi says of him,

“He has dangerous writings. One of them is Al-Du’afa.” He died in Mecca.

[Tadhkira al-Huffaz: 3/50] and [Shadharat al-Dhahab:

2/295].

Hadith #11: The Hadith of Ya’la ibn Murra

Related by Imam Al-Tabari

It has been related that one of the Companions by the name of Ya’la ibn Murra related that the Prophet was seen praying while holding one hand with the other.

Weakness of the Hadith

One of the transmitters in the chain by the name, ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ya’la, has been classified as weak. Shawkani states in Nayl al-Awtar [2/200],

It also contains ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd Allah ibn Ya’la. And he is weak.”

And Dhahabi said in Al-Mizan [4/131] about the aforementioned ‘Umar:

“(He is) Relinquished (matruk). He used to drink wine (khamr).”

Hadith #12: The Hadith of Gudayf ibn Al-Harith or Harith ibn

Ghudayf

Reported by Baghawi

Number 12 is the hadith of Ghudayf ibn Al-Harith or Harith ibn Ghudayf.

Hafiz Ibn Hajar said in Al-Isaba ma’a al-Isti’ab [3/184]:

“Verily Bukhari said in his biography: “Ma’n – meaning, Ibn ‘Isa – said on the authority of Mu’awiya – i.e. Ibn Salih – from Yunus ibn Sayf from Ghudayf ibn Al-Harith Al-Sakuti or Al-Harith ibn Ghudayf who said:

“I didn’t forget about things. I didn’t forget Allah’s Messenger placing his right hand over his left hand during Salat.”

Baghawi reported it by way of Zayd ibn Al-Habbab with this wording.”

Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

It is unclear if the transmitter’s name is Ghudayf or Al-Harith.

Weakness #2:

It is unclear if he was a Sahabi or a Tabi’i. Hafiz Ibn Hajar said about the aforementioned Ghudayf:

“Ibn Sa’d, Al-‘Ijli, Daraqutni, and others mentioned him among the Tabi’in (Companion successors).”

And there is confusion about whether or not he ever saw the Prophet when he was a child, which would make him a Tabi’i if he in fact never saw the Prophet. Ahmad related it in Al-Musnad. It is also stated in Al-Mughni along with Al-Sharh al-Kabir [1/549].

So the conflict (idtirab) found in the chain becomes clear about if the transmitter is either Ghudayf or Al-Harith, and about whether or not he was a Sahabi or a Tabi’i. And that demands that it be discarded as proof.

Hadith #13: The Hadith of Shaddad ibn Shurahbil

Reported by Al-Bazzar

Hadith number 13 is mentioned in Nayl al-Awtar under the aforementioned reference [2/200]. Shawkani says:

“And (there is another hadith) on the authority of Shaddad ibn Shurahbil (as found) with Al-Bazzar.”

Weakness of the Hadith

This report contains a weak narrator by the name, ‘Abbas ibn Yunus. Shawkani says in declaring the hadith of Shaddad to be weak,

“…But in it is ‘Abbas ibn Yunus.”

Shaykh Al-Dawdi says,

“And when a hadith scholar (muhaddith) says: ‘In it is So-and-So’, it is an allusion to the weakness of ‘So-and-So.’ Furthermore, I’ve searched in both Taqrib al-Tahdhib and Al-Mizan, and I didn’t find any biography for the aforementioned ‘Abbas. So perhaps he is unknown.”

Hadith #14: The Hadith of Abu Al-Darda

Reported by Daraqutni and Ibn Abu Shayba

Hadith number 14 is the hadith of Abu Al-Darda _. Shawkani says in Nayl al-Awtar under the aforementioned reference [2/200]:

“And (there is another hadith) on the authority of Abu Al-Darda (as found) with Daraqutni reaching back to the Prophet _ [marfu’an], as well as one reaching Abu Al-Darda only [mawqufan] in Ibn Abu Shayba.”

Weakness of the Hadith

The report ascribed the Prophet has not been authenticated.

Shaykh Al-Dawdi said,

“The only thing is that I searched in the Sunan of Daraqutni in the chapter of ‘Taking the Left with the Right during Salat,’ but I didn’t find Abu Al-Darda in it.

Nevertheless, Muhammad Shakir said in his short commentary (ta’liq) on Al-Muhalla [4/13]:

“Hafiz al-Haytami mentioned it in Majma’ al-Zawa’id and said: “Tabarani related it in Al-Kabir, going back to the Prophet and to the Companion, Abu Al-Darda. The one designated to the companion is sound (sahih). As for the one assigned to the Prophet (marfu’), there are among its transmitters one who I haven’t found anyone who has provided a biography for him.””

Hadith #15: The Hadith of ‘Uqba ibn Abu ‘Aisha

Reported by Haitimi in Majma’ al-Zawa’id

Hadith Number 15 is the hadith of ‘Uqba ibn Abu ‘Aisha that is designated only to the Companion (mawquf), not to the Prophet (marfu’). Shawkani stated it under the aforementioned reference of Nayl al-Awtar. And even if it happened to be authentic, it would only be ascribable to the Companion, not to the Prophet

.

Hadith #16: The Hadith of Hudhayfa

Ascribed to Daraqutni’s Sunan

Hadith Number 16 is the hadith of Hudhayfa. Shaykh Al-Dawdi said,

“He (i.e. Shawkani) stated it under the aforementioned reference. However, I couldn’t find it in his (i.e. Daraqutni’s) Sunan under the ‘Chapter of Taking the Left with the Right.’ And perhaps he related what has been attributed to him (i.e. the Prophet) from Hudhayfa and Abu Al-Darda _ in (a work) other than his Sunan.”

Hadith #17: The Hadith of Mu’adh ibn Jabal

Reported by Tabarani

The next hadith is the hadith of Mu’adh . Shawkani stated it in Nayl al-Awtar under the aforementioned reference.

The Weakness of the Hadith

One of its narrators by the name, Al-Khasib ibn Jahdar, has been classified as weak. Shawkani says,

“And (there is another hadith) on the authority of Mu’adh in Tabarani. But in it is Al-Khasib ibn Jahdar.”

Dhahabi said in Al-Mizan [2/176] under the biography of the aforementioned Al-Khasib:

“Bukhari said (of him): “A liar!” Shu’ba, Al-Qattan, and Ibn Ma’in also declared him to be a liar.”

Hadith #18: The Hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn Al-Zubayr

Reported by Abu Dawud

Number 18 is the hadith of ‘Abd Allah ibn Al-Zubayr . He said:

“Putting the feet together and placing one hand on the other is from

the Sunnah.”

Abu Dawud reported it.

Weaknesses of the Hadith

Weakness #1:

It is common knowledge that putting the feet together is disliked.

Weakness #2:

This report contradicts what is commonly accepted about the fact that Ibn Al-Zubayr preferred to pray while draping his hands at the side, as Imam Malik is known for doing. Shaykh Al-Dawdi said,

“And one of the clearest indications of the falseness of this report (athar) is the agreement of the Salaf that Ibn Al-Zubayr’s view _ was to drape the hands (sadl) during Salat. So it would not be correct for him to intentionally contradict the Sunnah.”

And he is the last of the eighteen (18) Companions (Sahaba).

The Tabi’i Reports

Report #1: The Report of Al-Hasan Al-Basri

Reported by Abu Dawud

Report #2: The Report of Tawus

Also Reported in Abu Dawud

It is reported that Tawus said,

“The Messenger of Allah _ used to place his right hand over his left hand, and then hold them tight on his chest while he was in Salat.”

The Weaknesses of both Reports

Weakness #1:

Both of these reports are incompletely transmitted, since there are undisclosed Companion and/or even non-Companion intermediaries between these Tabi’in.

Shawkani said:

“And (there is a report) on the authority of Al-Hasan – incompletely transmitted to the Prophet (murslan) in Abu Dawud, and (there is a report) on the authority of Tawus – also incompletely transmitted to the Prophet with him (i.e. Abu Dawud).”

Weakness #2:

It is commonly acknowledged that Al-Hasan Al-Basri prayed while draping his hands at his sides. So this report contradicts this well-established fact.

Shaykh Al-Dawdi said,

“However, I could only find in Abu Dawud (the report of) Tawus. As for Al-Hasan, I didn’t find it in it in spite of knowing that the position of Al-Hasan was to drape the hands (at the sides). And there is nothing sound (sahih) about Tawus.”


NOW, LET US TURN OUR ATTENTION TO SOME OF THOSE NARRATIONS WHICH MENTION SADL-UL-YADAIN

As for the hadeeth that indicate this, let us first see the hadith of abu hameed as saa’idi,

The main reason is the soundness of its chain, plus, its unequivocal indication that prophet asws offered prayers with hands by his side, that is, sadl ul yadain.

Ibn hajar said in fath-ul-baree

“bukhari, abu dawood, tirmidhi, ahmad and ibn khuzaimah reported it”

And the version of abu dawood contains the following addition that is a clear indication of hands on side. Its wordings are:-

“ahmad related to us- abu aasim ad dahhak bin makhlad related to us (transfer); musaddad related to us- yahya related to us”

And chain of ahmad is like:-

Abdul hameed informed us- that is, ibn jafar- (he said) Muhammad ibn amr ibn ataa informed me, he said,

“I heard abu hameed as saaidi say while in company of ten of the companions of the messenger of allah- may allah bless and grant him peace: “I am the most knowledgable of you of the prayer of holy prophet”.

They said “how (so)? For by allah, you were neither the one who spent the most time with him, nor the eldest of us to him in companionship”

He said “true indeed”

They said

“show (us)”

He said “whenever the messenger of allah would stand up to pray he would raise his hand until they were parallel with his shoulder, then say “allahu akhbar” until each bone became settled in his place straightly; then he would recite……..”

Now, the word “place straight” can, in no way, be equaled to “folded”

Sheikh mukhtaar ad daudi says

“and if the prophet use to pray while pacing the right over the left hand, the ten companions would have rebuked him for omitting it when he said: “until each bone became settled in its place….”since people’s ego are disposed to a severe eagerness to point out the mistake of one’s challenger when competing. And amongst the ten companions was sahl ibn saad who said in (in another hadeeth): “the people were ordered to place the right hand on the left forearm during salat” so it becomes clear that the order in the hadeeth of sahl came from one other than the prophet, and sahl’s acknowledgment of the description of prayer which the clasping of hands (qabd) has been omitted from is proof that the order in the aforementioned hadeeth is not from the prophet”

in the same way, nauwawee says

“… and about malik is also (the report mentioning) the favorableness of placing (the hands on the chest) in the voluntary (prayers ), and the (favorableness) of leaving ( them by the sides ) during the obligatory (prayers) . And this is what his followers from basra gave more weight to….”

[sahih muslim bi sharh al nauwawee, 4/96, hadeeth 401]

Also,

Muhammad al khadr ash shinqeeti, a Mauritanian scholar, said

“and of the hadeeths indicating the release ( of the hands at the sides) is every hadeeth in which the prayer of the prophet is described where in he covered (that is in hadeeth) the mention of the recommended act of prayer without mentioning the (clasping  of the hands). That’s because leaving (the hands hanging) is the original position as is not a secret. And clasping is an added description. So, when it is not mentioned, the situation is to remain according to the original state, which is the release of hands. Also because silence about the description (of something) at the time of clarification is required is indicative of limitation (to what is without addition)”

[ibram al naqd fima qila min arjahiyyat al qabd; Daar al bashair al islamiyyah, 1996]

EVIDENCE FROM COMPANIONS AND TABIOON:

In the musannaf of ibn shaibah, the following can be found:

1- abu bakar ibn abi shaibah declared: hushaym declared to us about Hassan (al basri) – about younas (who declared about) Ibrahim (an nakhai) that they (Hassan and Ibrahim) used to release their hands during prayer.

2- afan declared to us: yazeed ibn Ibrahim declared to us. He said “I heard amr ibn denar say “(Abdullah) ibn zabair, whenever he prayed, he used to release his hands”

3- ibn ulayyah declared to us- on the authority of ibn aun about ibn seren that he was asked about the man who holds his right hand with the left. He said “that was merely done because of the romans’ (influence)”

4-umar ibn haroon declared to us: on the authority of Abdullah ibn yazeed. He said “I never saw (saeed) ibn al musayyib clasping his right hand. He used to release them (at his side)”

5- yahya ibn saeed declared to us: on the authority of Abdullah ibn al ezar, he said “I used to accompany saeeb ibn jubair. So, he saw a man praying while placing one of his hands on the other. This one on his one, and this one on this one. So, he went, separated them, and then returned (to me)”.

And imam nauwawee said in his Majoo, a shafai book of fiqh.

“laith ibn saad (said about the person who prays): he releases them (that is the hands). Then, if that (that is, the prayer) is too long for him, he should place the right over his left.” And awza’e said “(one has) a choice between clasping and releasing (the hands)

Abu daood relates in his sunnan that muhammad ibn jahadah said about the matter of releasing the arms at one sides:

“Then I mentioned that to hasan ibn abi al-hassan, and he said “it is the prayer of allah’s messenger. Whosoever does it, doest it. And whosoever abandons it, abandons it.”

And in Musannaf of abdur razaq as san’aani, we find

“I saw ibn juraij praying while releasing hisn hands. And Awzaai said: “whoso pleases does it. And whoso pleases leave it” and this is the view of ataa”

CONCLUSION:-

The basic purpose of this article is not to point out mistakes in any other sect. Rather, it is an effort to tell others that it is not just shias who offer prayers in this manner.

As regards to sunni sect, this issue is itself, not that clear.

So why shias should be taunted?

please see the maliki method of salat:-

i have already written ahadeeth on combining of two prayers from bokhari, and muslim

and that can be read here

https://ahlubait.wordpress.com/2010/02/03/combining-of-two-prayers/

let us see from another book of sihaah-e-sitta; and it is sunnan nisai, we find in vol 1, page 258 that there is a chapter on this issue, and it gives us ahadeeth of ibn abbass, who says that holy prophet offered prayers though there was no problem like fear or journey. when he was asked for the reason, he replied that it was because of the fact that prophet wished that there should be ease for the people

interestingly, we find that there is another chapter which names “COMBINING TWO PRAYERS WHEN ONE IS RESIDENT”

it is in vol 1, page 253; here is the scan

then, we find yet another hadeeth and it is from moadh bin jabal, it is on page 252; here is the scan

so rather than accusing us, sunnis should first read their books and see what are the teachings of aimmah

We are often Accused of praying three times a day or that combining Prayers is Haram. Unfortunately Sunni’s don’t pay much attention to the their Books or the Prophets (pbuh) Sunna. In the Quran we clearly read there are three specific times:

Holly Quran 17:78 Establish regular prayers – at the sun’s decline till the darkness of the night, and the morning prayer and reading: for the prayer and reading in the morning carry their testimony.

Following references are from Sahih Bokhari

Sahih Bokhari Volume 1, Book 10, Number 518:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

“The Prophet prayed eight Rakat for the Zuhr and ‘Asr, and seven for the Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers in Medina.” Aiyub said, “Perhaps those were rainy nights.” Anas said, “May be.”

Sahih Bokhari Volume 1, Book 10, Number 524:
Narrated Abu Bakr bin Uthman bin Sahl bin Hunaif:

that he heard Abu Umama saying: We prayed the Zuhr prayer with ‘Umar bin Abdul Aziz and then went to Anas bin Malik and found him offering the Asr prayer. I asked him, “O uncle! Which prayer have you offered?” He said ‘The Asr and this is (the time of) the prayer of Allah s Apostle which we used to pray with him.”

Sahih Bokhari Volume 1, Book 10, Number 537:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet prayed seven Rakat together and eight Rakat together.

this is the link for sahih bokhari.

www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/bukhari/010.sbt.html

The following are hadith from Sahih Muslim on Combining Prayers:

please also note that the very name of this chapter is

Chapter 100: COMBINATION OF PRAYERS, WHEN ONE IS RESIDENT

and it is different than the previous chapter which is named

Chapter 99: PERMISSIBILITY OF COMBINING TWO PRAYERS ON A JOURNEY

the online link is also given as below.

www.usc.edu/schools/college/crcc/engagement/resources/texts/muslim/hadith/muslim/004.smt.html#004.1515

now we turn our attention to ahadeeth:-

SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1515: Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together, and the sunset and Isha’ prayers together without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1516: Ibn ‘Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed the noon and afternoon prayers together in Medina without being in a state of fear or in a state of journey. (Abu Zubair said: I asked Sa’id [one of the narrators] why he did that. He said: I asked Ibn ‘Abbas as you have asked me, and he replied that he [the Holy Prophet] wanted that no one among his Ummah should be put to [unnecessary] hardship.)


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1517: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined the prayers as he set on a journey in the expedition to Tabuk. He combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer. Sa’id (one of the rawis) said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What prompted him to do this? He said: He wanted that his Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1518: Mu’adh reported: We set out with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on the Tabuk expedition, and he observed the noon and afternoon prayers together and the sunset and ‘Isha’ prayers together.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1519: Mu’adh b. Jabal reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined in the expedition to Tabuk the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer. He (one of the narrators) said: What prompted him to do that? He (Mu’adh) replied that he (the Holy Prophet) wanted that his Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1520: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. And in the hadith transmitted by Waki’ (the words are): “I said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What prompted him to do that? He said: So that his (Prophet’s) Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.” And in the hadith transmitted by Mu’awiya (the words are): “It was said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What did he intend thereby? He said he wanted that his Ummah should not be put to unnecessary hardship.”


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1521: Ibn ‘Abbas reported: I observed with the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) eight (rak’ahs) in combination, and seven rak’ahs in combination. I (one of the narrators) said: O Abd Sha’tha’, I think that he (the Holy Prophet) had delayed the noon prayer and hastened the afternoon prayer, and he delayed the sunset prayer and hastened the ‘Isha’ prayer. He said: I also think so.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1522: Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) observed in Medina seven (rak’ahs) and eight (rak’ahs), i.e. (be combined) the noon and afternoon prayers (eight rak’ahs) and the sunset and ‘Isha’ prayers (seven rak’ahs).


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1523: ‘Abdullah b. Shaqiq reported: Ibn ‘Abbas one day addressed us in the afternoon (after the afternoon prayer) till the sun disappeared and the stars appeared, and the people began to say: Prayer, prayer. A person from Banu Tamim came there. He neither slackened nor turned away, but (continued crying): Prayer, prayer. Ibn ‘Abbas said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach me Sunnah? And then he said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combining the noon and afternoon prayers and the sunset and ‘Isha’ prayers. ‘Abdullah b. Shaqiq said: Some doubt was created in my mind about it. So I came to Abu Huraira and asked him (about it) and he testified his assertion.


SAHIH MUSLIM, Book 4, Number 1524: ‘Abdullah b. Shaqiq al-‘Uqaili reported: A person said to Ibn ‘Abbas (as he delayed the prayer): Prayer. He kept silence. He again said: Prayer. He again kept silence, and he again cried: Prayer. He again kept silence and said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach us about prayer? We used to combine two prayers during the life of the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him).

Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 141 other followers

Blog Stats

  • 286,478 hits

archives